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The Branner Geological Library 




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RELBaUI^ DILUVIAN^; 

OBSERVATIONS ^^'"'^ 




ON THE 



ORGANIC REMAINS 



CONTAINED IN 



CAVES, FISSURES, AND DILUVIAL GRAVEL, 



AND ON 



OTHER GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA, 



ATTESTING THE ACTION OF AN 



UNIVERSAL DELUGE. 



BY THE REV. WILLIAM BUCKLAND, B. D. F. R. S. F. L. S. 

MEMBEK OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; OF THE IXPEEIAL SOCIETIES OF MINERALOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY AT PETERSBURG AND MOSCOW; OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY IN THE 

UNIVERSITY OF BONN, ON THE RHINE; AND OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY AT HALLE ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY ; CORRESPONDENT OF THE 

MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF FRANCE; FELLOW OF C. C. C. AND PROFESSOR 

OF MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 



SECOND EDITION. 



•• • - • - 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE-STREET. 



MDCCCXXIV. 



2 \ 0792 



• « • 






• • • 

- • •• 

• • • • - - 

i •.; 



••• ••• 

• • • • 






LONDON: 

PRIHTBD DY THOMAS DAVISON, WHITRPRIARS. 



TO THE 



HONOURABLE AND RIGHT REVEREND 



SHUTE HARRINGTON, L.L.D 



LORD BISHOP OF DURHAM, &c. Sec. 



My Lord, 

The investigation which has led me to the present work 
was b^un in obedience to your Lordship's immediate advice ; I 

m 

know not, therefore, to whom I can so fitly dedicate the results 
of an inquiry, which but for this timely encouragement I might 
never have undertaken. It has, already, produced conclusions, 
which throw new light on a period of much obscurity in the 
physical history of our globe; and, by affording the strongest 
evidence of an universal deluge, leads us to hope, that it will 
no longer be asserted, as it has been by high authorities, that 
geology supplies no proofs of an event in the reality of which the 
truth of the Mosaic records is so materially involved. 



IV DEDICATION. 

The warm interest your Lordship has been pleased to take in 
the progress of these later discoveries, which are now published to 
the world, demands this tribute of my grateful acknowledgment : 
and I have been long indebted to your Lordship, for the same 
indulgent notice of my endeavours to call the attention of the 
University to the subject of geology, and combine with those 
branches of study which are more strictly academical, the cul-^ 
tivation of this new and interesting science. I am happy, 
therefore, in being permitted to add these expressions of my own 
feelings to the public respect and veneration, which have accom- 
panied your Lordship through a long and eminently useful life ; 
a life distinguished no less by the enlightened encouragement 
of learning and the liberal arts, than by the faithful dischai^ 
of the higher and more important duties which belong to your 
exalted station. 

I have the honor to remain. 
My Lord, . 
Your much obliged, and most devoted servant, 

WILLIAM BUCKLAND. 

Carpus (JhrUti College, Oxford, 
May, 1823. 



CONTENTS. 



Care at Kirkdale 
Chronological inferences fircmi it 
Caves at Kirby Moordde 
Open fissuie in Duncomb Park 
Cave at Button, in the Mendip Hills 
on Derdham Down, near CXft<m 
at Balleye, near Wirksworth 
Dream Cave, near Wirksworth 
Three sets of caves near Plymoadi 
Cave at Crawley Rocks, near Swansea 
»— ^ at Paviland, near Swansea 



CAVES IN GERMANY .... 

Endence of diluvial action in the caves and fismres of Gennany 
Caves near Spa ... 

in Westphalia ..... 

ofSchanfeld .... 

of Bauman's Hohle 

of Bid's Htihle 



1 
48 
SSt 
54 
57 
60 
61 
ib. 
67 
80 
8ie 



99 
108 
111 

lis 

lid 
117 
ISI 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



CAVES IN GERMANY 

Forster^s Hohle 

Cave of Rabenstein 

' of Zahnloch . 

of Gulenreuth 

ofKuhloch 
General remarks on the Grerman caves 



Page 

1S9 
ISO 
1S3 
187 
14« 



OSSEOUS BRECCIA OF GIBRALTAR, NICE, DALMATIA, &c. 



148 



HUMAN REMAINS IN CAVES 



164 



PART II. 

EVIDENCES OF AN INUNDATION AFFORDED BY PHENOMENA ON 

THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 



Evidence of diluvial action from the dispersion of the bones of elephants, &c. 

Evidence of diluvial action afforded by deponts of loam and gravel 

Evidence of dOuvial action in Scotland .... 

Evidence of diluvial action in Wales 

Evidence of diluvial action in Ireland ... 

Evidence of diluvial action on the Continent 

Evidence of diluvial action in North America 

Evidence of diluvial action in Africa and Asia . . . 

Evidence of an inundation at high levels 



171 
185 
201 
906 
807 
Sll 
215 
220 
221 



POSTSCRIPT. 

Opinions of Cuvier 



!■ 

'J 



S29 



• • 



CONTENTS. vn 



Page. 



APPENDIX 

On the excavation of valleys by diluvial denudation . 285 

Valleys of denudation, and diluvial pebbles, in Dorset, Devon, Wilts, 

and Berks . , . S39 

Valleys of denudation, and beds of diluvial gravel, in Warwickshire, 

Oxon, and Middlesex . • • • S49 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES .... 259 

INDEX •....-. 281 



The Description of the Cave at Kirkdale and the eleven first Plates are reprinted 
from the Philosophical Transactions, by permission of the President and 
Council of the Royal Society. 



ERRATA. 

Page 2^, for A. Bloxham^ Esq.^ read Bloxam. 

80^ for we know that animab are« read we hear of animals. 
\9\,for attrissement^ re/i<f atterissement. 



i 


a lour 


or gravel. 






II 


13 

a° 


1. 

Iff 
<3» 


.5 

a 


r 


Hysena . . 


— 


„_ 


„, 


™, 


Tiger . . 








_.. 


Bear . , 








__ 


Wolf . . 








.... 


Fox. . . 








„. 


Weasel 




._ 






Elephant . 


__ 


_„ 


__ 


.„ 


Rhinoceros „„ 





— 




„. 


Hippopotaq 








„. 


Mastodon . 










_. 


Horse . . 


™ 




.„ 




— 


Ox . . . 


™. 




._, 




_ 


Deer . . 






™ 


__ 


__ 


Rahbit or H 




— 






Water-rat . ^ 










Mouse . .[ 










Bird . 










Glutton . 










Hog . . 








_ 


Tapir . . 








„- 


Castor . . 










— 















• <•• 



AN ACCOUNT 



**•-•. 

•« 



OF 



AN ASSEMBLAGE OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES, 

8fc. 



That portion of the present Memoir which relates to the history of 
the cave at Kirkdale, together with a short review of its relation to 
other similar caves in England and Germany, has already appeared 
before the public in the Philosophical Transactions for 1 822 : the cave 
had been discovered in the summer of 1821, and having gone into 
Yorkshire for the purpose of examining it in the following December, 
I lost no time in laying the results of my investigation before the Royal 
Society of London. The encouragement they have since given me, 
by the award of their Copley medal, emboldens me to bring the sub- 
ject again before the public in its present enlarged form ; with an ad- 
ditional account of subsequent discoveries of several other caverns in 
England, and of an examination I undertook last summer of the most 
remarkable caves in Germany. To these I shall add a collection of 
facts presented by the form and structure of hills and valleys, and the 
accumulation on the earth's surface of diluvial loam and gravel, con- 
taining the remains of animals of the same kind with those that occur 
in the caverns ; all tending to throw an important light on the state of 

B 



• • • 

• mm. 






v.. 



- • • 



•- •• 



•••:•. 



•.V 

• 



• ^ 



2\-':- ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

.^ *':our planet at a period antecedent to the last great convulsion that has 
affected its surface, and affording one of the most complete and satis- 
factory chains of consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met 
with in the course of my geological investigations. 

As I shall have frequent occasion to make use of the word dilu- 
vium^ it may be necessary to premise, that I apply it to those extensive 
and general deposits of superficial loam and gravel, which appear to 
have been produced by the last great convulsion that has affected our 
planet ; and that with regard to th« indicaticJns afforded by geology 
of such a convulsion, I entirely coincide with the views of M. Cuvier, 
in considering them as bearing undeniable evidence of a recent and 
transient inundation. On these grounds I have felt myself fully 
justified in applying the epithet diluviaU to the results of this great 
convulsion ; of antediluviaU to the state of things immediately pre- 
ceding it ; and postdiluvial^ or alluvial^ to that which succeeded it, and 
has continued to the present time : I forbear to enter in this work 
into any discussion on the state or circumstances of the animal remains 
that occur in the solid strata that compose the surface of the earth, as 
it would be foreign to my immediate object, and as this subject, to- 
gether with that of the days mentioned in the Mosaic account of 
the creation, has been already considered in my inaugural lecture 
published at Oxford in 1820. 

In detaihng the observations I am about to make on Kirkdale, I 
propose, first, to submit a short account of the geological position and 
relations of its immediate neighlbourhood ; to proceed, in the next 
place, to a description of the cavern itself; then to enter into a par- 
ticular enumeration of the animal remains inhumed in it, and the very 



t 



i 



DISCOVERED AT KIEKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 3 

remarkabl^hAMMMIttEt witlir s^hich they are attended ; to review the 

general iniiiences . to which these phenomena lead ; and conclude 

with a compiffative account of analogous animal deposits, and of the 

evidences of dUttVial action connected with them in this cqiintry and 

on the Contifi^m. i 

'• < • . 
Kirkdale is situated (aa may be Beei%:by reference to the anMxed 

t"^* ■■ '' • ' ti 

.) ab<j^t 25 miles N. N. E. of the city of York, betweeh 

Helmsley and Eirby Moosnjtde, near the point at which the east base 
of the Hambleton hiUis, lookiiig towards Scarborough, subsides into 
the vale of Pickering, and on the S. ^extremity of the mountainous 
district known by the name of the Eastern and the Cleveland Moor- 
lands. 

The substratum of this valley of Pickering is a mass of stratified 
blue clay, identical with that which at Oxford and Weymouth reposes 
on a similar limestone to that of Kirkdale, and containing, subordi- 
nately, beds of inflammable bituminous shale, like that of Eimeridge, 
in Dorsetshire. Its south boundary is formed by the Howardian 
hills, and by the elevated escarpment of the chalk that terminates 
the Wolds towards Scarborough. Its north frontier is composed of 
a belt of limestone, extending eastward SO miles from the Hambleton 
hills, near Helmsley, to the sea at Scarborough, and varying in breadth 
from four to seven miles ; this limestone is intersected by a succession 
of deep and parallel valleys (here called dales), through which the fol- 
lowing rivers from the moorlands pass down southwards to the vale 
of Pickering, viz. the Rye, the Bical, the Hodge Beck, the Dove, the 
Seven Beck, and the Costa ; their united streams fall into the Der- 
went above New Malton, and their only outlet is by a deep gorge, 

B 2 



i 



4 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

extending from near this town down to Eirkham, the stoppage of 
which would at once convert the whole vale of Pickering into an 
immense inland lake ; and before the excavation of which, it is pro- 
bable that such a lake existed, having its north border nearly along 
the edge of the belt of limestone just described, and at no great 
distance from the mouth of the cave at Kirkdale. 

The position of the cave is at the south and lower extremity of 
one of these dales (that of the Hodge Beck), at the point where it 
falls into the vale of Pickering, at the distance of about a furlong 
from the church of Kirkdale, and near the brow of the left flank of 
the valley, close to the road. This flank slopes towards the river at 
an angle of 25^ and the height of the brow of the slope above the 
water may be about 80 feet. (See Plate II. fig 1.) 

The rock perforated by the cave is referrible to that portion of 
the oolite formation which, in the south of England, is known by 
the name of the Oxford oolite and coral rag : its organic remains are 
identical with those of the Heddington quarries near Oxford, but its 
substance is harder and more compact, and more interspersed with 
siliceous matter, forming irregular concretions, beds, and nodules of 
chert in the Umestone, and sometimes entirely penetrating its coral- 
line remains. The most compact beds of this limestone resemble the 
younger alpine limestone of Meillierie and Aigle in Switzerland ; they 
alternate with and pass gradually into those of a coarser oolitic tex- 
ture, and both varieties are stratified in beds from one to four feet 
thick. The cave is situated in one of the compact beds which lies 
between two others of the coarser oolitic variety ; the latter vary in 
colour from light yellow to blue ; the compact beds are of a dark 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 5 

grey passing to black, are extremely fetid, and full of corals and 
spines of the echinus cidaris. The compact portions of this oolite 
partake of the property common to compact limestones of all ages 
and formations, of being perforated by irregular holes and caverns 
intersecting them in all directions ; the cause of these cavities has 
never been satisfactorily ascertained: into this question (which is 
one of considerable diflSculty in geology) it is foreign to my present 
purpose to inquire, any farther than to state that they were neither 
produced, enlarged, nor diminished by the presence of the animals 
whose bones we now find in them. The half-corroded fragments of 
corals, shells, and spines of echini, and the irregular ledges of lime- 
stone and nodules of chert that project along the sides and roof of 
this cave, together with the small grooves and pits that cover great 
part of its interior, show that there was a time when its dimensions 
were less than they are at present, though they fail to prove by what 
cause it was originally produced*. 

* Caves in limestone are usually more or less connected with fissures of the rock in 
which they exists and the solid matter that once filled them appears in many cases to 
have been carried off through the fissures by the long continued and gradual perco- 
lation of water, removing the softer or decayed portions of the rock, either in a state of 
solution or mechanical suspension, so that no traces of it remain at present either in the 
caverns or the fissures. 

I think it highly probable, from the description given by Toumefort, in his Voyage 
to the Levant, p. 63, and from the map and plan of it published in Sieber's Travels in 
Crete, 182S, PL 13, that the celebrated labyrinth of Crete was nothing more than a long 
connected series of natural caverns, such as we are now considering, a little assbted by 
art, and by the addition of a few corridors between the natural vaultings that compose 
this subterraneous wonder of classic antiquity. It is stated to occiur in grey stratified 
limestone, which is found abimdantly in Crete, and is full of caves and fissures. 
" Through the whole island," says Toumefort, " there are a world of caverns, especially 
in Mount Ida, there are holes you may run your head in, bored through and through, and 



6 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

The abiindance of such caverns in the limestone of the vicinity of 
Eirkdale is evident from the fact of the engulfment of several of the 
rivers above enimierated in the course of their passage across it from 
the eastern moorlands to the vale of Pickering ; and it is important 
to observe, that the elevation of the Kirkdale cave, above the bed of 
the Hodge Beck, being nearly 80 feet, excludes the possibility of our 
attributing the muddy sediment we shall find it to contain to any 
land flood or extraordinary rise of the waters of this or of any other 
river in the neighbourhood. 

It was not till the summer of 1821, that the existence of any 
animal remains, or of the cavern containing them, was suspected. 
At this time, in continuing the operations of a large quarry along 
the slope just mentioned (see Plate II. fig. 1), the workmen acci- 
dentally intersected the mouth of a long hole or cavern, closed 
externally with rubbish, and overgrown with grass and bushes. As 
this rubbish was removed before any competent person had examined 

many very deep perpendicular abysses are also seen there ;^ these abysses are evidently 
vertical fissures connected with the caves. 

The extent to which apertures of the same kind are known to prevail in the compact 
limestone districts of England may be seen from a list of the principal caverns and sub- 
terraneous rivers in England^ given firom a note by Mr. Greenough at p. S53 of Cony- 
beare and PhiUips^s Greology of England and Wales ; and from a still more detailed list 
given by Mr. Farey^ at p. 64, and p. 292 of the 1st vol. of his Survey of Derbyshire, in 
which he enumerates twenty-eight remarkable caverns, and as many open fissures, locally 
called shake-holes, or swallow-holes, from their swallowing up the streams that cross the 
limestone districts of that country. The fissures descend firom the surface to a depth 
that is very considerable, and often communicate laterally with, or enlarge themselves 
into, caverns. 

Similar cavities give origin very generally to the engulfment of rivers, examples of 
which may be seen in the limestone districts of the Mendip Hills and South Wales, of 
the west of Ireland, Camiola, and North America. 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 7 

it, it is not certain whether it was composed of diluvial gravel and 
rolled pebbles, or was simply the debris that had fallen from the 
softer portions of the strata that lay above it ; the workmen, however, 
who removed it, and some gentlemen who saw it, assured me, that, it 
was composed of gravel and sand. In the interior of the cave I could 
not find a single rolled pebble, nor have I seen in aU the collections 
that have been taken from it one bone, or fragment of bone, that 
bears the slightest mark of having been rolled by the action of water. 
A few bits of limestone and roundish concretions of chert that had 
fallen from the roof and sides, and which might be mistaken for rolled 
pebbles, were the only rocky fragments that I could find, with the 
exception of broken pieces of stalactite. 

The original entrance of the cave is said to have been very small, 
and having been filled up as above described, there could have been 
no admission of external air through it to the interior of the cavern. 
Nearly 30 feet of its outer extremity have now been removed, 
and the present entrance is a hole in the perpendicular face of the 
quarry about three feet high and five feet broad, which it is only 
possible for a man to enter on his hands and knees, and which esL- 
pands and contracts itself irregularly from two to seven feet in breadth 
and two to fourteen feet in height, diminishing however as it pro- 
ceeds into the interior of the hill. The cave is about 20 feet below 
the incumbent field, the surface of which is nearly horizontal, and 
parallel to the stratification of the limestone, and to the bottom of 
the cave. Its main direction is E.S.E. but deviating from a straight 
line by several zigzags to the right and left (see Plate 11. fig. 3); its 
greatest length is stated by Mr. Young and Mr. Bird to be 245 feet. 



8 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

In its interior it divides into several smaller passages, the extent of 
which has not been ascertained. In its course it is intersected by 
some vertical fissures, one of which is curvilinear, and again returns 
to the cave ; another has never been traced to its termination ; whilst 
the outer extremity of a third is probably seen in a crevice or fissure 
that appears on the face of the quarry, and which closes upwards 
before it leaves the body of the limestone. By removing the sedi- 
ment and stalactite that now obstruct the smaller passages, a farther 
advance in them may be rendered practicable. There are but two or 
three places in which it is possible to stand upright, and these are 
where the cavern is intersected by the fissures ; the latter of which 
continue open upwards to the height only of a few feet, when they 
gradually close, and terminate in the body of the Umestone ; they are 
thickly lined with stalactite, and are attended by no fault or slip of 
either of their sides. Both the roof and floor, for many yards from 
the entrance, are composed of regular horizontal strata of limestone, 
uninterrupted by the slightest appearance of fissure, fracture, or stony 
rubbish of any kind ; but farther in, the roof and sides become irre- 
gularly arched, presenting a very rugged and grotesque appearance, 
and being studded with pendent and roundish masses of chert and 
stalactite ; the bottom of the cavern is visible only near the entrance ; 
and its irregularities, though apparently not great, have been filled up 
throughout to a nearly level surface, by the introduction of a bed of 
mud or loamy sediment, the history of which, and also of the stalac- 
tite, I shall presently describe*. (See Plate II. fig. 2.) 

* For a full explanation of the terms stalactite^ stalagmitEi and brecciAi which 
I shall frequently make use of, I beg to refer my readers to Dr. Kidd's Outlines of 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 9 

The fact already mentioned of the engulfment of the Bical Beck, 
and other adjacent rivers, as they cross the limestone, showing it to 
abowid with many similar cavities to those at Eirkdale, renders it 
likely that other deposits of bones may hereafter be discovered in 
this same neighbourhood ; but as the mouths of these caverns are 
filled up and buried under diluvial loam and gravel, or postdiluvian 
detritus, and overgrown with grass, nothing but their casual inter- 
section by some artificial operations will lead to a knowledge of their 
existence ; and in this circumstance, we also see a reason why so few 
caverns of this kind have hitherto been discovered, although it 
is probable that they are very numerous. 

In all these cases, the bones found in caverns are never mineral- 
ised, but simply in the state of grave bones more or less decayed or 
incrusted by stalagmite; and have no farther connexion with the 
rocks themselves, than that arising from the accident of having been 



Mineralogy : the following extract will suffice for my present purpose. Water, in pene- 
trating through limestone strata, often becomes impregnated with particles of the cal- 
careous carbonate of which the limestone is composed, and which on exposure to air 
it again deposits either in the form of pendulous masses that hang like icicles from the 
roof, or of stony concretions adhering to the sides of cavities, into which the water thus 
impregnated finds admission : to such deposits the term stalactite is applied. 

If the percolation of water containing calcareous particles b too rapid to allow time 
for the formation of a stalactite, the earthy matter is deposited from it after it has fallen 
from the roof upon the floor of the cavern; and in this case the deposition is called 
STALAGMITE : the substance deposited is the same aa-in the case of stalactite. Stalagmites 
are commonly, at least in the early stages of their formation, of a mamillary shape ; by 
gradual accumulation they become conical ; and at length form pillars, by the continual 
addition of their materials, till they meet, and become united with the stalactite that 
depends from the roof immediately above. 

The term breccia b appUed to broken fragments of stone or bone reunited into a 
solid mass by a stony cement. 

c 



10 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

lodged in their cavities, at periods long subsequent to the fonnation 
and consolidation of the strata in which these cavities occur. 

On entering the cave at Eirkdale (see Plate II. fig. fi), the first 
thing observed was a sediment of soft mud or loam, covering entirely 
its whole bottom to the average depth of about a foot, and concealing 
the subjacent rock, or actual floor of the cavern. Not a particle of 
mud was fi3ttnd attached either to the sides or roof; nor was there a 
trace of it adhering to the sides or upper portions of the transverse 
fissures, or any thing to surest the idea that it entered through 
them. The surface of this sediment when the cave was first 
opened was nearly smooth and level, except in those parts where its 
regularity had been broken by the accumulation of stalagmite above 
it, or ruffled by the dripping of water : its substance is an argillaceous 
and slightly micaceous loam, composed of such minute particles as 
would easily be suspended in muddy water, and mixed with much cal- 
careous matter, that seems to have been derived in part fi-om the 
dripping of the roof, and in part firom comminuted bones. At about 
100 feet within the cave's mouth the sediment became more coarse 
and sandy, and partially covered with an incrustation of black man- 
ganese ore. 

Above this mud, on advancing some way into the cave^ the roof 
and sides were found to be partiaUy studded and cased over with a 
coating of stalactite^ which was most abundant in those parts where 
the transverse fissures occur, but in small quantity where the rock is 
compact and devoid of fissures. Thus far it resembled the stalactite 
of ordinary caverns ; but on tracing it downwards to the surface of 
the mud, it was there found to turn off^ at right angles fix)m the sides 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 1 1 

of the cave, and form above the mud a. plate or crust, shootmg across 
like ice on the sur&ce of water, or cream on a pan of milk. (See 
Plate II. fig. 2.) The thickness and quantity of this crust varied 
with that found on the roof and sides, being most abundant, and 
covering the mud entirely where there was much stalactite on the 
roof and sides, and more scanty in those places where the roof or sides 
presented but little : in many parts it was totally wanting both on the 
roof and surface of the mud and of the subjacent floor. Great portion 
of this crust had been destroyed in digging up the mud to extract 
the bones before my arrival ; it still remained, however, projecting 
partially in some few places along the sides ; and in one or two, where 
it was very thick, it formed, when I visited the cave, a continuous 
bridge over the mud entirely across from one side to the other. In 
the outer portion of the cave, there was originally a mass of this 
kind which had been accumulated so high as to obstruct the passage, 
so that a man could not enter till it had been dug away. 

These horizontal incrustations have been formed by the water 
which, trickling down the sides, was forced to ooze off laterally as 
soon as it came into contact with the mud ; « in other parts, where it 
fell in drops from the roof, stalagmitic accumulations have been raised 
on its suri^ice, some of which are very large and flat, resembling a 
cake of bees' wax, but more commonly they are of the size and shape 
of a cow's pap, a name which the workmen have applied to them. 
There is no alternation of mud with any repeated beds of stalactite^ 
but simply a partial deposit of the latter on the floor beneath it ; and 
it was chiefly in the lower part of the earthy sediment, and in the 
stalagmitic matter beneath it, that the animal remains were found : 

c 2 



I 



12 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

there was nowhere any black earth or admixture of animal matter, 
except an infinity of extremely minute particles of undecomposed 
bone. In the whole extent of the cave, only a very few large bones 
have been discovered that are tolerably perfect ; most of them are 
broken into smaU angular fragments and chips, the greater part of 
which lay separately in the mud, whilst others were wholly or par- 
tially invested with stalagmite ; and others again mixed with masses 
of still smaller fra^ents and cemented by stalagmite, so as to form 
an osseous breccia. In some few places where the mud was shallow, 
and the heaps of teeth and bones considerable, parts of the latter 
were elevated some inches above the sur&ce of the mud and its 
stalagmitic crust ; and the upper ends of the bones thus projecting 
like the legs of pigeons through a pie-crust into the void space above, 
have become thinly covered with stalagmitic drippings, whilst their 
lower extremities have no such incrustation, and have simply ad- 
hering to them, the mud in which they have been imbedded ; an 
horizontal crust of stalagmite, about an inch thick, crosses the middle 
of these bones, and retains them firmly in the position they occupied 
at the bottom of the cave. A large flat plate of stalagmite, cor- 
responding in all respects with the above description, and containing 
three long bones fixed so as to form almost a right angle with the 
plane of the stalagmite, is in the collection of the Rev. Mr. Smith, of 
Kirby Moorside. The same gentleman has also, among many other 
valuable specimens, a fragment of the thigh bone of an elephant, which 
is the largest I have seen from this cave. 

The eflfect of the loam and stalagmite in preserving the bones 
from decomposition, by protecting them from all access of atmospheric 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSfflRE. IS 

air, has been very remarkable ; some that had lain mioovered in the 
cave for a long time before the introduction of the loam were in va- 
rious stages of decomposition ; but even in these the further progress 
of decay appears to have been arrested as soon as they became 
covered with it ; and in the greater number, little or no destruction 
of their form, and scarcely any of their substance, has taken place. I 
have found, on immersing fragments of these bones in an acid till 
the phosphate and carbonate of lime were removed, that nearly the 
whole of their original gelatine has been preserved. Analogous 
cases of animal remains preserved from decay by the protection of 
similar diluvial mud occur on the coast of Ea3ex9 near .Walton, and 
at Lawford, near Rugby, in Warwickshire ; here the bones of the 
same species of elephant, rhinoceros, and other diluvial animals occur 
in a state of freshness and perfection even exceeding that of those in 
the cave at Eirkdale ; and from a similar cause, viz. their having been 
guarded from the access of atmospheric air, or the percolation of 
water, by the argillaceous matrix in which they have been imbedded : 
whilst other bones that have lain the same length of time in diluvial 
sand or gravel, and been subject to the constant percolation of 
water, have lost their compactness and strength, and great part of 
their gelatine, and are oflen ready to fall to pieces on the slightest 
touch ; and this where the beds of clay and gravel in question alter- 
nate in the same quarry, as at Lawford. 

The workmen, on first discovering the bones at Kirkdale, sup- 
posed them to have belonged to cattle that died by a murrain in this 
district a few years ago, and they were for some time neglected, and 
thrown on the roads with the common limestone ; they were at length 



14 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

noticed by Mr. Harrison, a medical gentleman of Kirby Moorside, 
and haye since been collected and dispersed amongst so many indi* 
viduals, that it is probable nearly aU the specimens will in a few 
years be lost, with the exception of such as may be deposited in 
public collections. By the kindness and liberality of the Bishop of 
Oxford (to whom I am also indebted for my first information of the 
existence of this cave) and of C. Duncombe, Esq. and Lady Charlotte 
Duncombe, of Duncombe Park, a nearly complete series of the teeth 
discovered in it has been presented to the Museum at Oxford; 
whilst a stiU better collection, both of teeth and bones, is in the pos- 
session of J. Gibson, Esq. of Stratford in Essex, to whose exertions 
we owe the preservation of many valuable specimens, and who has 
presented a series of them to several public collections in London *. 
W. Salmond, Esq. also, of York, has been engaged with much zeal 
and activity in measuring and exploring new branches of the cave, 
and making large collections of the teeth and bones, from which he 
has sent specimens to the Boyal Institution of London and to M. 
Cuvier. He has recently deposited the bulk of his collection at the 
newly-established Philosophical Society at York. I am indebted to 
him for the annexed ground plan of the cave, and its ramifications, 

'* The British Museum, the Royal College of Surgeons, and the Geological Society 
have all been enriched by the liberality of Mr. Gibson. The Greological Society pos- 
sesses also a magnificent collection of the remains of elephant, rhinoceros, ox, elk, and 
other antediluvian animals found in the diluvian gravel beds of various parts of England, 
together with some fine specimens of bones from the caverns of Germany : their collec- 
tion also of the organic remains found in the secondary strata of England, and of speci- 
mens of the strata themselves, is arranged in a manner which affords to the members of 
that society the most ready access to a knowledge of the physical changes which the 
country we inhabit has undergone, and of general geology. 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 15 

(Plate II. fig. S.) Drawings by Mr. Clifl, of some of the most perfect 
of Mr. Gibson's specimens, have been sent to M. Cuvier, for the new 
edition of his work on fossil animals ; copies of these have been made 
for me by the kindness of Miss Morland, and appear in the annexed 
platesi with many other drawings, for which I am indebted to the 
pencil of Miss Duncombe ; and the Bev. George Young, and Mr. Bird 
of Whitby, in their History of the Geology of the Coast of Yorkshire, 
have given engravings of some other teeth and a few bones in their 
possession. 

It appears that the teeth and bones which have as yet been dis- 
covered in the cave at Eirkdale are referrible to the following 23 
species of animals. 

6 Camivora. — Hyaena, Tiger, Bear, Wolf, Fox, Weasel (See Plates 

III. IV. V. VI. and XIII.) 
4 Pachydermata. — Elephant, Bhinoceros, Hippopotamus, and 

Horse. (See Plates VII. X. and XIII.) 
4 Buminantia. — ^Ox, and three species of Deer. (See Plates 
VIIL IX. and X.) 

4 Bodentia. — ^Hare, Babbit, Water-rat, and Mouse. (See Plates 

X. XI. and XIII.) 

5 Birds. — Baven, Pigeon, Lark, Snipe, and a small species of 

Duck, resembling the anas sponsor, or simmier duck. 
See Plate XI. fig. 19 to 29, and Plate XIII. fig. 11, 
12.) 

The bottom of the cave, on first removing the mud, was found to 



16 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

be strewed all over like a dog-kennel, from one end to the other, with 
hundreds of teeth and bones, or rather broken and splintered frag- 
ments of bones, of aU the animals above enumerated; they were 
found in greatest quantity near its mouth, simply because its area in 
this part was most capacious ; those of the larger animals, elephant, 
rhinoceros, &c. were found co-extensively with all the rest, even in 
the inmost and smallest recesses. (See Plate II. fig. 3.*) Scarcely a 
single bone has escaped fracture, with the exception of the astragalus, 
and other hard and solid bones of the tarsus and carpus joints, and 
those of the feet. (See Plate X. fig. 1 to 5, and fig. 7 to 10, and 
Plate V. fig. 5 to 12.) On some of the bones, marks may be traced, 
which, on applying one to the other, appear exactly to fit the form 
of the canine teeth of the hysena that occur in the cave. The 
hyaena's bones have been broken, and apparently gnawed equally 
with those of the other animals. Heaps of small splinters, and 
highly comminuted, yet angular fragments of bone, mixed with teeth 
of all the varieties of animals above enumerated, lay in the bottom of 
the den, occasionally adhering together by stalagmite, and forming, 
as has been before mentioned, an osseous breccia. Many insulated 
fragments also are wholly or partially enveloped with stalagmite, both 
externally and internally. Not one skull is to be found entire ; and 
it is so rare to find a large bone of any kind that has not been more 
or less broken, that there is no hope of obtaining materials for the 
construction of a single limb, and still less of an entire skeleton. The 
jaw bones also, even of the hyaenas, are broken to pieces like the rest ; 
and in the case of nearly all the animals, the number of teeth and of 
the sohd bones of the tarsus and carpus is more than twenty times as 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IK YORKSHIRE. l7 

great as could have been supplied by the individuals whose other 
bones we find mixed with them. 

Fragments of jaw bones are by no means common ; the greatest 
number I saw belong to the deer, hyaena, and water-rat, and retain 
their teeth ; in all the jaws both teeth and bone are in an equal state 
of high preservation, and show that their fracture has been the effect of 
violence, and not of natural decay. I have seen but ten fragments of 
deers' jaws, and about forty fragments of those of hyaenas, and a still 
greater number of those of rats. (See Plate III. fig. 3, 4, 5, and Plate 
IV. fig. 2, S.) The ordinary fate of the jaw bones, as of all the rest, 
appears to have been to be broken to pieces and swallowed, the teeth 
being rejected as too hard for mastication, and without marrow. 

The greatest number of teeth are those of hyaenas, and the rumi- 
nantia. Mr. Gibson alone collected more than 300 canine teeth of 
the hyaena, which at the least must have belonged to 75 individuals^ 
and adding to these the canine teeth I have seen in other collections, 
I cannot calculate the total number of hyaenas of which there is evi- 
dence, at less than 200 or 300. I have already stated, that many of 
these animals had died before the first set, or milk teeth, had been 
shed ; these teeth are represented in Plate VI. fig. 15 to 27 : the 
state of their fangs shows that they had not fallen out by absorption. 
The only remains that have been found of the tiger species (see 
Plate VI. fig. 5, 6, 7) are two large canine teeth, each four inches 
in length, and a few molar teeth, one of which is in my pos- 
session ; these exceed in size that of the largest lion or Bengal tiger. 
There is one tusk only of a bear (see Plate VI. fig. 1), which 
exactly resembles those of the extinct ursus spelaeus of the caves of 

D 



16 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

Gemiany, the size of whichy M. Cuvier says^ must have equalled that 
of a large horse. Of the fox there are many teeth (see Plate VI. 
fig« 8 to 14). Of the wolf I do not lecdAect that I have seen more 
than one large molar tooth (see Plate XIII. fig. 5^ 6) ; the smaller 
nralars of the wolf however are v^y like some o£ the first set of the 
young hyasna; A few jaws.and teeth have also bem found belonging 
to the weasel (Plate VI. fig. 28, 29 ; and Plate XXIIL fig. 
11, 12, IS). Teeth of the larger pachydermatous animals are not 
abundant. I have information of about ten elephants' teeth, but of 
no tusk; most of these teeth are broken, and as very few of them 
exceed three inches in their Icmgest diameter, they must have 
belonged to extremely young animals. (See Plate VIL fig. 1 and 2.) 
I l^ve seen but six molar teeth of the hippopotamus, and a few 
firagm€»its of its canine and incisor teeth, the best of which are in the 
possession of Mr. Thorpe^ of York. (See Plate VII. fig. 8, 9y 10, 
and Plate XIII. fig. 7.) Teeth of the rhinoceros are not so rare ; I 
hove seen at least 50, some oi them very large^ and apparently firom 
aged animals. (See Plate VII. fig. 8, 4, Sy-S*) I have heard of only 
two or three teeth belonging to the horse. Of the teeth of deer 
there are at least three species (see Plate VIIL fig. 9, 11, 13), the 
smallest being very nearly of the siae and form of those of a &dlaw 
deer, the ku^est agreeing in siae^ but differing ia form firom those of 
the modem elk; and a third being o£ an intermediate size, and 
approadhdng that of a.large stag or red deer. I have not ascertained 
how many species there are of ox, but apparently there are two. 
But. the teeth which occur perhi^ in greatest abundance are those 
of the irat»r-rat (see Plate XI«fig. 1 to 6^ and II to 18) ; for in almost 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 19 

every specimen I have collected or seen of the osseous breccia^ there 
are teeth or broken jGragments of the bones of this little animal mixed 
with, and adhering to the fragments of all the larger bones. These 
rats may be supposed to have abounded on the edge of the lak^ which 
I have shown probably existed at that time in this neighbourhood : 
there are also the jaw of a hare^ and a few teeth and bones of rabbits 
and mice. (Plate X. fig. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, Plate XL fig. 7, 8, 9, 10, 
and Plate XIH. fig- 8.) 

Besides the teeth and bones already described, the cave contained 
also fitigments of horns of at least two species of deer. (See Plate IX. 
fig. 3, 4, and 5.) One of theise resembles the horn of the commcm^ 
stag or red deer, the circumference of the base measuring 9f inches, 
which is about the size of our largest stag. A second (fig. 4) mea* 
sures 7f inches at the same part, and both have two antlers, that rise 
yery near the base. In a smaller species the lowest antler is 3^ inches 
above the base, the circumference of which is 8 inches. (See fig. 5.) 
No horns are found entire, but jGragments only, and these apparently 
gnawed to pieces like the bones : their lower extremity nearest the 
head is that which has generally escaped destruction : and it is a 
curious &ct, that this portion of all the horns I have se€»i from the 
cave shows, by the rounded state of the base, that they had fallen off 
by absorption or necrosis, and been shed firom the h^td on which they 
grew, and not broken off by Violence. 

It must already appear probable, firom the facts above described, 
particularly firom the comminuted state and apparently gnawed con- 
dition of the bones, that the cave at Eirkdale was, during a long 

succession of years, inhabited as a den by hyaenas, and that they 

d2 



20 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

dragged into its recesses the other animal bodies whose remains are 
found mixed indiscriminately with their own : this conjecture is ren- 
dered almost certain by the discovery I made, of many small balls of 
the solid calcareous excrement of an animal that had fed on bones^ 
resembling the substance known in the old Materia Medica by the name 
of album grsecum (see Plate X. fig. 6) : its external form is that of a 
sphere, irregularly compressed, as in the fseces of sheep, and varying 
from half an inch to an inch and a half in diameter ; itscolour is yellowish 
white, its fracture is usually earthy and compact, resembling steatite, 
and sometimes granular ; when compact, it is interspersed with small 
cellular cavities, and in some of the balls there are undigested minute 
fragments of the enamel of teeth. It was at first sight recognised by 
the keeper of the Menagerie at Exeter Change, as resembling, both in 
form and appearance, the faeces of the spotted or Cape hysena, which 
he stated to be greedy of bones beyond all other beasts under his care. 
This information I owe to Dr. Wollaston, who has also made an analysii? 
of the substance under discussion, and finds it to be composed of the 
ingredients that might be expected in faecal matter derived from bones, 
viz. phosphate of lime, carbonate of lime, and a very small ptoportion 
of the triple phosphate of ammonia and magnesia ; it retains no 
animal matter, and its originally earthy nature and affinity to bone 
will account for its perfect state of preservation •. 

I do not know what more conclusive evidence than this can be 
added to the facts already enumerated, to show that the hyaenas 

* I have one ball of this substance that is in great part invested with a thin cmmlar 
case or crust of stalagmite. This must have been formed round it whilst it lay loose and 
exposed to the dripping of water on the bottom of the cave, before the Introduction of 
the mud. 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 2l 

inhabited this cave, and were the agents by which the teeth and 
bones of the other animals were there collected ; it may be useful 
therefore to consider, in this part of our inquiry, what are the habits 
of modern hyaenas, and how far they illustrate the case before us. 

The modem hyaena (of which there are only three known species, 
all of them smaller and different from the fossil one) is an inhabitant 
exdusively of hot climates ; the most savage, or striped species, 
abounds in Abyssinia, Nubia, and the adjacent parts of Africa and 
Asia. The less ferocious, or spotted one, inhabits the Cape of Good 
Hope^ and lives principally on carrion. He is seldom seen by day, 
but prowls by night, and clears the plains of the carcasses, and even 
skeletons, which the vultures have picked clean, in preference to 
attacking any living creature. In the structure of its bones this 
animal approaches more nearly than the striped hyaena to the fossil 
species: to these M. Cuvier adds a third, the red hyaena, which is 
very rare. 

The structure of these animals places them in an intermediate 
class between the cat and dog tribes ; not feeding, Uke the former, 
almost exclusively on living prey, but like the latter, being greedy of 
putrid flesh and bones * : their love of putrid flesh induces them to 
follow armies, and dig up human bodies from the grave. They 
inhabit holes in the earth, and chasms of rocks ; are fierce, and of 
obstinate courage, attacking stronger quadrupeds than themselves, 
and even repelUng lions. Johnson says of them, in his Field Sports, 

* It is quite impossible to mistake the jaw of any species of hyaena for that of the wolf 
or tiger kind ; the latter having three molar teeth only in (he lower jaw, and the former 
seven; whilst all the hyena tribe have four. (See Plate IV. fig. I, 2, S). 



22 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

that ^ they feed on small animals and carrion, and often come in for 
the prey left by tigers and leopards after their ^petites have been 
satiated : they are great enemies of dogs, and kill nmnbers of them. 
They make no earths of their own, but lie mider rocks, or resort to 
the earths of wolves, as foxes do to those of badgers ; and it is not 
uncommon to find wolves and hyaenas in the same bed of earths." 
Their habit of digging human bodies from the grave, and dragging 
them to their den, and of accumulating aroimd it the bones of all 
kinds of animals, is thus described by Busbequius, where he is 
speaking of the Turkish mode of burial in Anatolia, and their custom 
of laying large stones upon their graves to protect them from the 
hysenas. ^ Hysena regionibus iis satis frequens ; sepulchra suffodit, 
extrahitque cadavera, portatque ad suam speluncam ; juxta quam 
videre est ingentem cumulum ossium humanorum * veterinariorum' * 
et reliquorum omne genus animalium/' (Busbeq. Epist. 1 Leg. Turcf ) 
Brown, also, in his Travels to Darfur, describes the hyaenas' manner 
of taking off their prey in the following words : — ^ they come in 
herds of six, eight, and often more, into the villages at night, and 
carry off with them whatever they are able to master ; they will kill 
dogs and asses even within the enclosure of houses, and &il not to 
assemble wherever a dead camel or other animal is thrown, which, 
acting in concert, they sometimes drag to a prodigious distance/' 

* Veterinam bestiam jumentum Cato appellavit a vehendo : (quasi veheterinus vel 
▼eterinus.) Pomp. Fest. 

t This evidence is the more valuable, from the accuracy and delight with which it 
appears, from his own testimony, that Busbequius used to watch the habits of wild 
animals, which he kept for this purpose in his menagerie at Constantinople, where he 
resided many years as ambassador from the Elmperor of Grermany. 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 88 

Sparman and Pennant mention that a sii^le hysena has been known 
to cany off a living man or woman in the vicinity of the Cape *• 

The strength of the hyaena's jaw is such, that in attacking a dog, 
he begins by biting off his leg at a single snap. The capacity of his 
teeth, for such an operation, is sufficiently obvious from simple in- 
specoon ; and, consistent with this strength of teeth and jaw, is the 

^ It appears from the discussions of the learned Bochart, in his Hierozoicon, on the 
hyaena, that the peculiar habits of this animal had attracted the attention of the earliest 
■atoralists, more especially his savage voracity, and practice of digging human bodies 
from their graves for the purpose of devouring them. He quotes the following, passages: 
Aristotelis Hist lib. viiL cap. 5. ** Tu|xj3tt;pu%fl7 ^i efiii/^svof lyjf e-apKOfaYlaf Im dv^poiTtwy," — 
Pliniusi lib. viii. cap. 80. *' Ab uno animali sepulchra erui (traduntur) inquisitione cor- 
porum.^— SoHnufl^ '' Eadem hyaena inquidtione corporum ^epultorum busta emit"— 
Hieronymus in Esaiam, capite Ikv. " Semper cadavera persequitur et vivit succo et sanie 
corporum mortuorum.^ — Et in leremiam, capite xiii. ^ Vivit cadaveribus mortuorumi et 
de sepulchris solet effodere corpora.** 

Bochart shows also that certain parts of the body of this animal, particularly the 
atlas or first vertebra of the neck, which they called the *^ nodusi**^ were used by the 
ancient enchanters m the ceremonies of tiieir magical incantations. 

** Hue quicquid foetu genuit natura sinistro 

Miscetur : non spuma canum, quibus unda timori est ; 
Viscera non lyncis, non diras nodus hje&nas, 
Defuit.'' 

Lucanus, Lib. VI. v. 673. 

And contends that the same animal is also alluded to in the Old Testament, in I Samuel, 
ch. IS. V. 18, and Jeremiah, ch. IS. v. 9. 

In the former of these passages he is of opinion with Aquila, that the *^ Valley of 
Zeboim** ought to have been translated the " Valley of Hyaenas ;'* and in the latter he 
thinkft with the Septuagint, that the words which in our version are rendered ** speckled 
bird,** should have been ** ravenous spotted beast,'* L e. hyaena. The Septuagint have 
it, ''M^ crt^Xaioy ialnis ^ xXijpoyojJ(x |X8 efMi.** Mr. Parkhurst, also, and Scheuchzer are for 
establishing the hyaena in this passage. 

The proverbial enmity supposed to subsist between this animal and the dog is also 
mentioned by Oppian, Pliny, and ^lian, and alluded to in Ecclesiasticus, ch. xiii. 18. 
*'Tlf tlpini valvri'g^of wivaf — '' What agreement is there between thebyttna and a dog?" 



24 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

state of the muscles of his neck, being so ftiU and strong, that in 
early times this animal was fabled to have but one cervical vertebra. 
They live by day in dens, and seek their prey by night, having large 
prominent eyes, adapted, like those of the rat and mouse, for seeing 
in the dark. To animals of such a class, our cave at Eirkdale would 
afibrd a most convenient habitation ; and the circumstances we* find 
developed in i£ are entirely consistent with the habits above enu- 
merated. 

It appears, from the researches of M. Cuvier, that the fossil hysena 
was nearly one-third larger than the largest of the modern species, 
that is, the striped or Abyssinian; but, in the structure of its 
teeth, more nearly resembled the Cape animal. (See Plate III. fig, 
1, 2, S, 4, and Plate IV. fig. 1, 2, S.) Its muzzle also was shorter 
and stronger than in either of them, and consequently its bite more 
powerful. The length of the largest modem hya&na noticed is five 
feet nine inches. 

The fossil species has been found on the Continent in situations 
of two kinds, both of them consistent with the circumstances under 
which it occurs in Yorkshire, and, on comparing the jaws and teeth 
of the latter with those of the former engraved in M. Cuvier's Be- 
cherches sur les Ossemens fossiles, I find them to be absolutely iden^ 
tical. The two situations are caverns and diluvian gravel. 

1. In Franconia the bones of hyaenae have been found mixed with 

those of an enormous number of bears and of tigers in the 
caves near Muggendorf. 

* 

2. In the Hartz Forest similar bones of hyaenae, bears, and tigers 

have been found together in the caves of Scharzfeld and 
Bauman's Hole, 



I 



« 



DISCOVERED AT laRlODALE, IN YORKSHIRE. S5 

3. At Sundwick, - in Westphalia, Mr. A. L. Sack, of Bonn, has 

within the last two years discovered remains of the hyaena 
in the same cave with the bones of the^ursus spelaeus, nrsus 
arctoideus, and glutton ; and accompanied by the molar teeth, 
head, and foot bones of rhinoceros, and the horns, jaws, and 
other bones of two species of large deer ; the bones of the 
deer and rhinoceros he describes as having their softer 
parts broken off, and bearing distinct marks of the teeth of 
the wild beasts by which they have been gnawed. 

4. In France, at Fouvent, near Gray, in the department of Doubes, 

bones of thehysenawere found mixed with the teeth and tusks 
of elephants, and the bones of the rhinoceros and horse, in 
a cavity of limestone rock, which, like that at Kirkdale, was 
discovejred by the accidental digging away of the rock in a 
garden. 

5. In Saxony, on the S.W. of Leipsig, Baron Schlotheim has 

discovered at Kbstritz, in the valley of the Elster, the bones 
of hysenae mixed with those of rhinoceros, horse, ox, sta^ 
bear, and extinct tiger, in the fissures and cavities both of 
the limestone and gypsum rocks which occur in that district. 
The bones are buried in, and mixed up with a mass of dilu^ 
vial loam or clay, containing also pebbles of limestone and 
granite. 

6. In Wirtemberg at Canstadt, in the valley of the Necker, 

A. D. 1700, hyaenas' bones were found mixed with those of 
the elephant, rhinoceros, horse, ox, stag, hare, and small 
carnivorous animals, and with rolled pebbles, in a mass of 

« £ 



t 



$6 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

yellowish clay and sand^ which was partially agglutinated 
into a hard breccia : they lay without any order, or relative 
proportion to each other, were for the most part broken, 
and some of them rolled. 

7. In Bavaria between Kahldorf and Reiterbuck, on the surface 

of the hills that bound the valley of Eichstadt. These were 
buried in a bed of sand, and mixed with the bones of 
elephants and stags. 

8. On the west base of the Hartz Forest, Blumenbach has de- 

scribed, in his Specimen, 2. Archceologise Telluris, a mass of 
bones belonging to the hyasna, elephant, and rhinoceros, 
discovered in 1808 between Osterode and Dorste, and im- 
bedded in diluvial mud. 

9. In Italy, M. Pentland has found, in the Museum at Florence, 

the head and lower jaw of an hyaena, and the remains of a 

bear, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, from 

the sand and loam beds of the Val d' Arno. 

The first three of these cases appear to have been dens like the 

cave at Eirkdale ; the 4th and 5th have possibly received their bones 

in the manner I shall hereafter point out when speaking of the caves 

at Plymouth ; the last four are deposits of diluvial detritus, like the 

surface gravel beds of England. 

The bones of the hyaena, however, had not been discovered in the 
diluvial detritus of this country till the spring of last year, 1822, when 
Mr. Andrew Bloxham, by mere accident, brought me some bones 
from, the day in which they so often find the remains of elephant 
and, rluQooeros at/Lawford, near Rugby, that I might inform him 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 27 

what they were : the instant I saw them I was enchanted to find the 
entire under jaw and entire radius and uhia of a very old and large 
hyeena, supplying the only link that was deficient to complete the 
evidence I wanted to establish the hyaena's den at Eirkdale. These 
bones are in the highest possible state of preservation ; the jaw is 
quite entire, and firom an animal so old that it had lost more than half 
its teeth, and the remainder are ground almost to the stumps, and have 
their surface polished like a burnishing stone. (See Plate XII.) 
The bones of the arm also (see Plate XIII. fig. 1, 2) are equally per- 
fect with the jaw. There are not the slightest marks of firacture on 
any of them like those on the bones at Eirkdale ; and this is con- 
sistent with the different circumstances of this individual from those 
in the cave ; the hyaena at Lawford appears from its position in the 
diluvial clay to have been one that perished by the inundation that 
extirpated the race, as well as the elephant, rhinoceros, and other 
tribes that lie buried with it ; and, consequently, as it could have had 
no survivors to devour its bones, we should on this hypothesis expect 
to find them entire, as they are actually found in the specimens before 
us. (See Plate XII. and Plate XIII. fig. 1, 2.) With them were found 
some entire small bones of the foot apparently of the same individual 
hysena, and also the humerus of a bird in size and shape nearly resem- 
bling that of a goose (see Plate XIII. fig. 9, 10), and in the same state of 
high preservation with the hyaena and rhinoceros bones amidst which 
it lay. This is the first example within my knowledge of the bones 
of birds being noticed in the diluvium of England. 

It was stated, when speaking of the den at Eirkdale, that the 
bones of the hysenas are as much broken to pieces as those of the 
animals that formed their prey; and hence we must infer, that the 

E 2 



28 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

carcases even of the hyaenas themselves were eaten tip by their sur-^ 
vivors. Whether it be the habit of modem hyaenas to devour those 
of their own species that die in the course of nature ; or, under the 
pressure of extreme hunger, to kill and eat the weaker of them, is a 
point on which it is not easy to obtain positive evidence. Mr, Brown 
however asserts, in his journey to Darfur, " that it is related of the 
hyaenas, that upon one of them being wounded, his companions in- 
stantly tear him to pieces and devour him/' It seems therefore in the 
highest degree probable, that the mangled reUcs of hundreds of hyaenas 
that lie indiscriminately scattered and equally broken with the bones 
of other animals in the cave of Kirkdale, were reduced to this state by 
the agency of the surviving individuals of their own species. 

It has not only been stated as- above, that modem hyaenas devour 
their own species, but stiU further, that when in captivity they eat 
up parts of their own bodies. The keeper of Mr. WombwelPs col- 
lection told me in December 1821, that he had an hyaena some years 
ago which ate off his own fore paws ; and his Boyal Highness the 
Prince of Denmark has subsequently informed me, that the old hyaena 
in the Jardin du Boi at Paris has eaten off his own hind feet I 
have since requested my friend Mr. Underwood, who is resident in 
Paris, and is an accurate observer of nature, to procure me further 
particulars of this circumstance, which I subjoin in his own words. 

*^ The present Cape hyaena," says he, ** about ten years ago^ in 
the month of September, began to nibble and suck his hinder paws, 
which nearly destroyed them in two months, at which time he left 
off: at the same period of the following year he began again, and 
continued for about the same space of time, by which the metatarsal 
and tarsal bones of both feet, and about half the tibia and fibula of 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 29 

the right leg, were eaten. Since that time he has not attacked any 
other part of his body. He now walks on three legs, but with great 
diflBculty.'' ^ The fact seems to be, that many animals, particularly 
the monkey tribe, when in confinement, are subject to a sort of 
itching, which induces them to nibble their extremities ; and in the 
case of monkeys, especially their tails, and that they rarely cease 
imtil mortification and death ensue *. 

A large proportion of the hyaenas' teeth bears marks of extreme 
old age, some being abraded to the very sockets by continual gnawing, 
and the majority having lost the upper portion of their coronary part, 
and having fangs extremely large : these probably died in the den 
from mere old age : and if we compare the lacerated condition of the 
bones that accompany them, with the state of the teeth thus worn 
down to the very stumps, notwithstanding their prodigious strength, 
we find in the latter the obvious instruments by which the former 
were thus comminuted. A great number of other teeth appear to 
have belonged to young hyaenas (see Plate VI. figs. 15 to 27), being 
of the first set or milk teeth ; in many others of the second set the 
fangs are not developed, and the points and edges of the crown not 
the least worn. I have a fragment of the lower jaw, in which the 
second set of teeth had not been protruded, but were in the act of 
forming below the first. • (See Plate V. fig. S, 4.) Mr. Salmond has an 
entire one. (See Plate XXIII. fig. 10.) Archdeacon Wrangham has a 



^ Pennant^ in his Zoology, (Srd edit. 4to. vol. 1^ p. SOS) speaking of the Caspian 
Lynx^ mentions one which bit off and devoured one of its own fractured limbs. Rats 
and foxes, when caught in traps, are often known to bite off their wounded limbs, but I 
have not heard of their devouring them. 



80 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

similar j&agment of an upper jaw (see Plate XIII. fig. 8, 4), where the 
secontt set of teeth are in the act of forcing out one of the first set, which 
is identical with those engraved in Plate VI. No. 22, 23, 24, 25 ; and 
I have seen at least a dozen smaller fragments of jaws, which are nearly 
in the same state ; other teeth of the second set are found in various 
stages of advancement towards maturity, and the number of all these 
young teeth is much too great for us to attribute them to animals 
that may have died in early life from accident or disease. It seems 
more probable, and the idea is confirmed by the above statement of 
Mr. Brown, and by the fact of all the hyaenas' bones in the den being 
gnawed and broken to pieces equally with the rest, that they were 
occasionally killed and devoured by the stronger individuals of their 
own species, and that both young and old were always eaten up after 
natural death. 

But, besides the evidence their teeth afibrd to show that the 
animals died at various periods of life, they present other appearances 
(and so likewise do the bones) of having passed through difierent 
stages and gradations of decomposition, according to the difierent 
length of time they had lain exposed in the bottom of the den, before 
the muddy sediment entered, which, since its introduction, has pre- 
served them fi-om ferther decay. This observation applies equally to 
the remains of all the animals. I have some portions of bone and 
teeth that are so much decomposed as to be ready to fall to pieces on 
the slightest touch ; these had probably lain a long time unprotected 
in the bottom of the den ; others still older may have entirely pe- 
rished ; but the majority both of teeth and fragments of bone are in 
a state of the highest preservation ; and many thousands have been 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 81 

collected and carried away since the cave was discovered. The degree 
of decay is always equal in the teeth and portions of jaw bOnes to 
which they are attached. 

In many of the most highly preserved specimens of teeth and 
bones there is a curious circumstance^ which, before I visited Kirk- 
dale, had convinced me of the existence of the den, viz. a partial 
polish and wearing away to a considerable depth of one side only ; 
many straight fragments of the larger bones have one entire side, or 
the fractured edges of one side, rubbed down and worn completely 
smooth, whilst the opposite side and ends of the same bone are sharp 
and untouched, in the same manner as the upper portions of pitching 
stones in the street become rounded and polished, whilst their lower 
parts retain the exact form and angles which they possessed when 
first laid down. This can only be explained by referring the partial 
destruction of the solid bone to friction from the continual treading 
of the hyasnas, and rubbing of their skin on the side that lay upper- 
most in the bottom of the den. In many of the smaller and curved 
bones, also, particularly in those of the lower jaw and toes, as well as in 
the curved teeth, (see Plate V. fig. l and S) the convex surface only has 
been uniformly worn down and polished, whilst the ends and concave 
surface have suffered no kind of change or destruction (Plate V. fig. 
2 and 4) : and this also admits of a similar explanation ; for the cur- 
vature of the bone or tooth would allow it to rest steady under con- 
stant treading only in this position : as long as the concave surface was 
uppermost, pressure on either extremity would cause it to tilt over, 
and throw the convex side upwards ; and this done, the next pressure 
would cause its two extremities to sink into any soft dirt on sub- 



32 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

Stance that lay beneath, and give it a steady and fixed position. 
Such sterns to have been the process by which the curved fragments 
I allude to, have not only received a partial polish on the convex 
side only, but have been submitted to so much friction, that in 
several instances more than one-fourth of the entire thickness of the 
bone, and a proportionate quantity of the outer side of the fangs and 
body of the teeth, have been entirely worn away. (See Plate V. 
fig. 1.) I can imagine no other means than the repeated touch of 
the living hysenas' feet and skin, by which this partial wearing away 
and polish can have been produced * : for the process of rolling by 
water would have made pebbles of them, or at least would have 
broken ofi^the edges of the teeth and delicate points of the firactured 
extremities of the bone, which still remain untouched and sharp f . 

I have already stated, that the greatest number of teeth (those of 
the hyaena excepted) belong to the ruminating animals ; from which 
it is to be inferred tha* they formed the ordinary prey of the hyaenas. 
I have also to add, that very few of the teeth of these animals bear 

* I have been informed by an officer in India^ that passing by a tiger's den in the 
absence of the tiger, he examined the interior, and found in the middle of it a large por- 
tion of stone, on which the tiger reposed, to be worn smooth and polished by the friction 
of his body. The same thing may be seen on marble steps and altars, and even metallic 
statues in places of worship that are favourite objects of pilgrimage : they are often 
deeply worn and polished by the knees, and even lips of pilgrims, to a degree that, with- 
out experience of the fact, we coidd scarcely have anticipated. 

f It has been suggested that the dropping of water might possibly have produced 
the polish, but this would not have caused the curved teeth and bones to lie with their 
convex side upwards. The latter circumstance may be referred to the hyaenas* tread ; 
and when placed in this position, a repetition of such treading would produce the polish 
in question. I have, moreover, specimens which show that water dropping on these 
bones produced a stalagmitic incrustation on them, instead of polishing or removing any 
portion of their surface. 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 83 

marks of age ; they seem to have perished by a violent death in the 
vigour of life. With respect to the horns of deer that appear to have 
fallen off by necrosis, it is probable that the hysenas found them thus 
shed, and dragged them home for the purpose of gnawing them in 
their den ; and to animals so fond of bones, the spon£;y interior of 
hon.s of this kind would not be „n«»eptabU. I Ld . ^ent 
of stag's horn in so small a recess of the cave, that it never could have 
been introduced, unless singly, and after separation from the head ; 
and near it was the molar tooth of an elephant. I have seen no re- 
mains of the horns of oxen, and perhaps there are none ; for the bony 
portion of their interior, being of a porous spongy nature, would pro- 
bably have been eaten by the hysenas, whilst the outer case, being of 
a similar composition to hair and hoofs, would not long have escaped 
total decomposition. For the same reason the horn of the rhino- 
ceros, being merely a mass of compacted hair-like fibres, has never 
been found fossil in gravel beds with the bones of that animal, except 
in Siberia, where it has been frozen up in ice, nor does it occur in the 
cave at Kirkdale. I have been told that sheep's horns laid on land 
for manure wiU be consumed in ten or a dozen years ; the calcareous 
matter of bone, being nearly allied to limestone, is the only portion of 
animal bodies that occurs in a fossil.state, unless when preserved, like 
the Siberian elephant, of the same extinct species with that of Kirk- 
dale, by being frozen in ice, or buried in peat. 

The extreme abundance of the teeth of water rats has also been 
alluded to ; and though the idea of hyaenas eating rats may appear 
ridiculous, it is consistent with the omnivorous appetite of modem 
hyaenas, and with the fact, quoted from Johnson, that they feed on 



34 ACCOUNT OP FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

small aiiimalsy as well as cankm and bones ; nor is the disproportion 
in size of the animal to that of its prey greater than that of wdlves 
and foxes, which are supposed by Cf^tain Parry to feed dbiefly on 
mice, during the long winters of Melville Island. Heame^ in his 
Joum^ to the Northern Ocean, mentions the fact ^ of a hill, called 
Grizzle Bear Hill, being de^ly furrowed and turned over like 
ploughed land by bears in search of ground squiirds, and perhaps 
mice, which constitute a favourite part of their food.'' If bears eat 
mice, why should not hyasnaa eat rats ? Otir largest dogs eat rats 
and mice ; jackaUs occasionally prey on mice, and dogs and foxes will 
eat frogs. It is probable, therefore, that neither the size nor aquatic 
habit of the water rat would iseciure it from the hyaenas. They mighl 
occasioiiaUy also ha/ve eaten mice, weasels, rabbits, foxes^ and birds ; 
and in masticating the bodies of these small animals with their coarse 
conical teeth, many bones and fragments of bone would be pressed 
outwards throu^ their lips, and fall neglected to the ground*. 

The occurrence of birds' bones may be explained by the proba- 
bility of the hyaenas finding the birds dead, and taking them home^ 
as usual, to eat m their den: and the fact, that fi>ur of the only siik 
bones of birds I have seen from Eirkdale are those of the^ulna, may 
have arisen from the position of the quill feathem^ on it, and the small 

* The teeth and bones of water rats have been found by M. Cuvier to occur abun- 
dantly in many of the osseous brecdas from the shores of the MediteEtaiiean and 
Adriatic. He has also in his collection a large mass from Sardinia, composed ezdusively 
of the bones and teeth of these animals, nearly as white as ivory, and slightly adhering 
togeAeP by delicate stalagmite ; but by what process these bones were collected together, 
and whether in the antediluvian period, or more recently, it is not possible to decide, 
without careful examination of the spots in which they are respectively found, unless they 
happen to be in the same mass with bones or teeth belonging to odier Mmnylff of extinct 
species. 



DISCOVEBJBD AT tTHimAT.T:, IN YORKSHIBE. 36 

quantity of fleshy matter that exists on the outer extreikiity of the 
wmgs of birds ; the former a£K>rdiiig an obstacle, and the latter no 
tCTdptation to the hyasnas to devour them. Two of the bones here 
motioned (see Plate XL fig. 19 to 23), in size and form, and 
the position of the points at the base of the qmlls, exactly resemble 
the ulna of a raven ; a third (fig. 26, 27) approaches closely to the 
Spanish runt, which is one of the largest of the pigeon tribe ; a fourth 
bone (fig. 24, 25) is the right uka of a lark ; a fifth (fig. 28, 29) the 
eoraooid process of the right scapula of a small species of dude resem- 
bling the Anas sponsor, or summer duck ; and a sixth (Plate XIIL 
fig. 11, 12), resembles as closely as possible the humerus of a com- 
mon snipe*. 

With respect to the bear and tiger, the remains of which are 
extremely rare^ and of which the teeth that have been found (see 
Plate VI. fig. 1, 5, 6, 7)^ indicate a magnitude equal to the great 
Ursus spekeus of the caves of Germany, and of the largest Bengal 
tiger, it is more probable that the hyaenas found their dead carcasses, 
and dragged them to the den, than that they were ever joint t^iants 
of the same cavern. It is however obvious that they were aU con- 
temporaneous inhabitants of antediluvian Yorkshire. 

In the case of such minute and burrowing animals as the mouse 
and weasel, and perhaps the rabbit and fox, it is possible that some 
of them may have crept into the cave by undiscovered crevices, and 
there died since the stoppage of its mouth ; and if so, their 

* For my knowledge of these, and many other bones I have from Kirkdale, I am 
indebted to a carefiil examinalion and comparison of them made by Mr. Brooks, in his 
m6st valuable collection of osteological preparations. Mr. Clift also has kindly assisted 
me at the Royal College of Surgeons in furtherance of the same object. 

F 2 



i 



f 






S6 ACCOUNT OP FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

bones would have been found lying on the surface of the mud before 
it was disturbed by digging : as no observations were made in season 
as to this pointy it must remain unsettled^ till the opening of another 
cave may give opportunity for more accurate investigation, 'rtiis 
uncertainty, however, applies not to any of the extinct species, or to 
the larger animals, whose habit it is not to burrow in the ground, nor 
even to those of the smaller ones, (e. g. the water rat,) fragments of 
whose bones and teeth are found imbedded in the antediluvian 
stalagmite, and cemented by it both to the exterior and internal 
cavities of bones belonging to the hyaenas and other extinct species, 
which, beyond all doubt, were lodged in the den before the period 
of the introduction of the mud. Should it turn out that since this 
period the cave has been accessible to foxes and weasels, it is possible 
that some of the birds may also have been introduced by them. The 
evidence of this, however, rests on a fact not yet carefully ascertained^ 
viz. whether the bones in question were buried, like those of the 
extinct animals, beneath the mud, or lay on its surface ; the state of 
one of the ravens' bones, containing stalagmite in its central cavity 
(see Plate XI. fig. 22, 23), seems to indicate high antiquity ; and the 
quarry man, who was the first to enter the cave, assured me, that he 
has never seen a single bone of any kind on the surface, nor without 
digging into the substance of the mud, with the exception of a very 
few such cases as that of the specimen I have described in the pos- 
session of Mr. Smith. 

As ruminating aniinals form the ordinary food of beasts of prey, 
it is not surprising that their remains should occur in such abundance 
in the cave (see Plate VIIL fig. 1 to 14) ; but it is not so obvious by 



V 



^ 



DISCOVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 37 

what means the bones and teeth of the elephant, rhinoceros, and hip^ 
popotamus, were conveyed thither (see Plate VII. fig. 1 to 6, and 8 
to 10). On the one hand, the cave is in general of dimensions so 
contracted (often not exceeding three feet in diameter), that it is 
impossible that living animals of these species could have found an 
entrance, or the entire carcases of dead ones been floated into it ; 
moreover, had the bones been washed in, they would probably have 
been mixed with pebbles and rounded equably by friction, which they 
are not;: on the other hand, it is foreign to the habits of the hyaena 
to prey on the larger pachydermata, their yoimg perhaps excepted. 
No other solution of the difficulty presents itself to me, than that the 
remains in question are those of individuals that died a natural death ; 
for though an hyaena would neither have had strength to kill a living 
elephant or rhinoceros, or to drag home the entire carcase of a dead 
one, yet he could carry away, piecemeal, or acting conjointly with 
others, fragments of the most bulky animals that died in the course 
of nature, and thus introduce them to the inmost recesses of his 
den. 

Should it be asked why, amidst the remains of so many hundred 
animals, not a single skeleton of any kind has been foimd entire, we 
see an obvious answer, in the power and known habit of hyaenas to 
devour the bones of their prey ; and the gnawed fragments on the 
one hand, and album graecum on the other, afford double evidence of 
their having largely gratified this natural propensity: the exception 
of the teeth and numerous small bones of the lower joints and extre- 
mities, that remain unbroken, (as having been without marrow and 
too hard and solid to afford inducement for mastication,) is entirely 



I. *>- 



.% 



38 ACCX)UNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

consistent with this solution*. And should it be further asked, why 
we do not find, at least, the entire skeleton of the one or more hyaenas 
that died last and left no survivors to devour them ; we find a suf- 
ficient reply to this question, in the circumstance of the probable 
destruction of the last individuals by the diluvian waters. On the 

* Since this paper was first published, I have had an opportunity of seeing a Cape 
hysena at Oxford, in the travelling collection of Mr. Wombwell, the keeper of which 
confirmed in every particular the evidence given to Dr. Wollaston by the keeper at 
Exeter 'Change. I was enabled also to observe the animal's mode of proceeding in the 
destruction of bones: ihe shin bone of an ox being presented to this hy8sna;*he began 
to bite off with his molar teeth large fragments fix)m its upper extremity, and swallowed 
them whole as fast as they were broken off. On his reaching the medullary cavity, the 
bone split into angular firagments, many of which he caught up greedily and swallowed 
entire : he went on cracking it till he had extracted all the marrow, licking out the lowest 
portion of it with his tongue : this done, he left untouched the lower condyle, which con- 
tains no marrow, and is very hard. The state and form of this residuary fi*agment are 
precisely like those of similar bones at Kirkdale ; the marks of teeth on it are very 
few^ as the bone usually gave off a splinter before the large conical teeth had forced 
a hole through it ; these few, however, entirely resemble the impressions we find on the 
bones at ELirkdale; the small splinters also in form and size, and manner of fracture^ 
are not distinguishable from the fossil ones. I preserve all the fragments and the 
gnawed portions of this bone for the sake of comparison by the side of those I have from 
the antediluvian den in Yorkshire : there is absolutely no difference between them, ex- 
cept in point of age. The animal left untouched the solid bones of the tarsus and carpus, 
and such parts of the cylindrical bones as we find untouched at Kirkdale, and devoured 
only the parts analogous to those which are there deficient The keeper pursuing this 
experiment to its final result, presented me the next morning with a large quantity of 
album grsecum, disposed in balls, that agree entirely in size, shape, and substance with 
those that were found in the den at Kirkdale. I gave the animal successively three 
shin bones of a sheep; he snapped them asunder in a moment, dividing each in two parts 
only, which he swallowed entire, without the smallest mastication. On the keeper puttin g 
a spar of wood, two inches in diameter, into his den, he cracked it in pieces as if it had 
been touchwood, and in a minute the whole was reduced to a mass of splinters. The 
power of his jaws far exceeded any animal force of the kind I ever saw exerted, and 
reminded me of nothing so much as of a miner's crushing mill, or the scissars with which 
they cut off bars of iron and copper in the metal founderies. 



•cv 



DISOOVEE 



OVERED AT KIRKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 39 

rise of these, had there been any hysenas in the den, they would have 
mshed out, and fled for safety to the hills ; and if absent, they could 
by no possibility have returned to it from the higher lev^: that they 
were extirpated by this catastrophe is obvious, from the discovery of 
their bones in the diluvial gravel both of England and Germany. 
The same circumstance will also explain the reason why there are no 
heaps of b(»ies found on the outside Of£ the Eirkdale cave, as described 
by Eusbequius on the outside of the hyaenas' dens in Anatolia ; for 
every thing that lay without, on the antediluvian sur&c^ must have 
been swept far away, and scattered by the violence of the diluvian 
waters ; and there is no reason for bdieving that hysenas, or any 
other animals whatever, have occupied the den subsequently to that 
catastrophe*. 

Although the evidence to prove the cave to have been inhabited 
as a den by successive generations of hyaenas appears thus direct, it 
may be as well to consider what other hypotheses can be suggested, 
to explain the collection of bones assembled in it. 

1st It may be said, that the various animals had entered the cave 
spontaneously to die, or had fled into it as a refuge from some general 
convulsion : but the diameter of the cave, as has been mentioned 
before, compared with the bulk of the elephant and rhinoceros^ 
renders this solution impossible as to the larger animals ; and with 



* It has been suggested further, that there is no proof that this individtud cave was 
actually occupied at the precise point of time at which the waters began to rise, although 
it certainly had been so during several generations not bug preceding. It may have 
been abandoned a short time prior to it, and at that moment have been untenanted ; &a 
modem hunters do not always find their game exactly on the same spo^ nor is there any 
Uiing to prevent hyienas as well as other wild animals from occasionally chan^ng their 
qowteifi. Quarter^ Reviev, Oct. ISXt, p. 468. 






If. 



•<•■ 



40 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

respect to the smaller, we can imagine no circumstances that would 
collect together, spontaneously, animals of such disriniilar habits as 
hyasnas, tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, horses, oxen, deer, rabbits, water-* 
rats, mice, weasels, and birds. 

2d. It may be suggested, that they were drifted in by the waters 
of a flood: if so, either the carcases floated in entire; or the bones 
alone were drifted in after separation from the flesh : in the first of 
these cases, the larger carcases, as we have already stated, could not 
have entered at all ; and of the smaller ones, the cave could not have 
contained a sufficient number to supply one-twentieth part of the 
teeth and bones ; moreover, the bones would not have been broken 
to pieces, nor in difierent stages of decay. And had they been washed 
in by a succession of floods, we should have had a succession of beds 
of sediment and stalactite, and the cave would have been filled up by 
the second or third repetition of such an operation as that which in- 
troduced the single stratum of mud, which alone occurs in it. On 
the other hypothesis, that they were drift;ed in after separation from 
the flesh, they would have been mixed with gravel, and at least 
slightly rolled on their passage; and it would still remain to be shown 
by what means they were split and broken to pieces, and the dispro- 
portion created which exists between the numbers of the teeth and 
bones. They could not have fallen in through the fissures, for these 
are closed upwards in the substance of the rock, and do not reach to 
the surface. 

The 3rd, and only remaining hypothesis that occurs to me is, that 
they were dragged in for food by the hyaenas, who caught their prey 
in the immediate vicinity of their den ; and as they could not have 
dragged it home from any very great distances^ it follows, that the 



DISCOVEBED AT KTRKDALE, IN YOBKSHIBE. 41 

animals they fed on^ all lived aod died not far from the spot where 
the remains are fomid. 

The aocmnulation of these bones^ then, appears to have been a 
long process, going on during a succession of years, whilst all the 
animals in question were natives of this country. The general 
dispermon of bones of the same animals through the diluvian gravel 
of high latitudes, over great part of the northern hemisphere, shows 
that the period in which they inhabited these regions was that imme- 
diately preceding the formation of this gravel, and that they perished 
by the same waters which produced it. M. Cuvier has moreover 
ascertained that the fossil elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and 
hyaena, belong to species now unknown ; and as there is no evidence 
that they have at any time, subsequent to the formation of the 
diluvium, existed in these regions, we may conclude that the period, 
at which the bones of these extinct species were introduced into the 
cave at Eirkdale, was antediluvian. Had these species ever re- 
established themselves in the northern portions of the world since 
the deluge, it is probable their remains would have been found, like 
those of the ox, horse, deer, hog, &c. preserved in the postdiluvian 
accumulations of gravel, sand, silt, mud, and peat, which are referable 
to causes still in operation, and which, by careful examination of their 
relations to the adjacent country, can be readily distinguished from 
those which are of diluvian origin. 

The teeth and fragments of bones above described seem to have 
lain a long time scattered irregularly over the bottom of the den, and 

r 

to have been continually accumulating until the introduction of the 
sediment in which they are now imbedded, and to the protection of 
which they owe that high state of preservation they jxMssess. Those 



4A ACOOUMT OB POSBIL THBTH AMD VWX» 

that lay long tmoovsred at the bottom of thed^ have UMiefgcmd a 
decay proportionate to the time of their esposilzei otibersi that hai/^ 
kin cmly a fih^rt time before die introduetion of the diluvian mud, 
hate been preserved by it ahnost from evra incdpiient deoompositioau 
Thus the phenomena of this cave seem refi»able to a period imr 
mediately aoitecedent to the last inundation of the earth, and in which 
the fix)rld was inhabited by land animals, almost all beajong a geaeriQ 
and many a i^edfic resemblance to those which now exist I butso com- 
pletely has the violence of that tremendous convulsion destroyed and 
remodelled the form of the antediluvian sur&ce^ that it is only in 
eavons <hat have been protected from its ravages that we may hx^ 
to find undisturbed evidence of events in the period immediately 
{H-eceding it. The bones abeady described, and the stalagmite formed 
brfore the introduction of the diluvial mud, are what I consider to be 
the products of the period in question. It was indeed probable, b^re 
the discovery <^ this cave, from the abundance in which the remains 
c^fflnular species occur in superficial gravel beds^ which cannot be re* 
ferred to any other than adiluvial origin, that sudi animals were the 
antediluvian inhabitants not only of this country, but generally of 
all diose northiem latitudes in which their remains are found (but 
the pro<^ was imperfect, as it was possible they might have been 
drifted or floated hither by the waters from the warmer r^ons of 
the earth) ; but the facts developed in this charnel-house of the ante- 
dikfidan forests of Yorkshire demonstrate that there was a long suc- 
^session of years in which the elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus 
had been the prey oi the hyaenas, which, like themsdves, inhabited 
En^and in the period immediatdy preceding the formation of the 
g^tfvd j and if t^ey inhabited this oountry, it Mows as a 



DI8COVBKEO AT KIBEDALB, IN TORKSHIBE. 48 

ocnroUfuy, th&t they also inhabited aU those other r^iohs of the 
northern hemisph^^e in which similar bones have been fimnd under 
precisely the same drcumstanees^ hot nuheralised, but simply in the 
state of fftwre bones imbedded in loam, or clay, or grayel, over great 
part of northern Europe, as well as North America and Siberia. 
The catastrophe produdng this gravel appears to have been the last 
event that has operated generally to modify the sur&ce of the rarth, 
and the few local and partial changes that have succeeded it, such as 
the formation d deltas, terraces, tu&, torrent-gravel and peat-bogs, 
all conspire to show, that the period of their ccmunencenient was 
subsequent to that at which the diluvium was formed*. 



^ It was stated in describing the locaKty of the cave atKirkdale^ and cm comparing 
it with the £stct of its containing the remains of large and small aquatic animals, that there 
was probably a lake in this part of the country at the period when they inhabited it ; 
and this hypothesis is rendered probable by the form and disposition of the hills that still 
encircle the vale of Pickering. (See Map, Plate I.) 

Inclosed on the south, the west, north-west, and north, by the lofty ranges of the 
W<Ms, the Howardian hiDs, the Hambleton hills, and Eastern Moorlands, the waters of 
this vale must either run eastward to Filey Bay, or inland towards York; and such is dhe 
superior elevation of the strata along the coast, that the sources of the Derwent, rising 
almost close to the sea, near Scarborough and Filey, are forced to run west and southward 
fifty miles inland away from the sea, till £EJling into the Ouse, they finally reach it by 
turning again eastward through the Humber. The only outlet by which this drainage is 
accomplished is the gorge at New Mahon ; and though it is not possible to ascertain what 
was the precise extent of this antediluyian lake, or how much of the low districts, now 
constituting the Vale of Pickering, may have been excavated by the same diluvian waters 
that produced the gorge, it is obvious, that iirithout the existence of this gorge, much of 
the district within it would be laid under water; and it is not till within these few years 
that a large tract of this land has been recovered from a state of swamp and marsh by an 
artificial canal, called the Muston Drainage, which runs inland from the sea westward 
along the valley of the Derwent, from Muston, near Filey Bay, to the gorge of New 
Malton ; it is equally obvious, that this gorge is referable to the agency of diluvial de- 
nudation, the ravages of which have not, perhaps, left a single portion of the antediluviati 

o2 



44 ACCOUNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

It is in the highest degree curious to observe, that four of the 
genera of animals whose bones are thus widely diffiised over the tCTi« 
perate, and even polar regions of the northern heioisphere, should 
at present exist only in tropical climates, and chiefly south of the 
equator ; and that the only country in which the elephant^ rhinoceros^ 
hippopotamus, and hysena are now associated is Southern Afiica. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of the Cape they all live and die to- 
gether, as they formerly did in Britain ; whilst the hippopotamus is 
now confined exclusively to Afiica, and the elephant, rhinoceros, and 
hysena are also difiiised widely over the continent of Asia. 

To the question which here so naturally presents itself, as to 
what might have been the climate of the northern hemisphere when 
peopled with genera of animals which are now confined to the warmer 
regions of the earth, it is not essential to the point before me to find 
a solution ; my object is to establish the fact, that the animals lived 
and died in the regions where their remains are now found, and 
were not drifted thither by the diluvian waters fix)m other latitudes. 
The state of the climate in which these extinct species may have 

surface of the whole eartbi which is not excavated and re-modelled, so as to have lost aU 
traces of the exact features it bore antecedendy to the operations of the deluge. 

It is probable, that inland lakes were much more numerous than they are at present, 
before the excavation of the many gorges by which our modem rivers make their escape; 
and this is consistent ynih the frequent occurrence of the remains of the hippopotamus 
in the diluvian gravel of England, and of varioust parts of Europe, particularly in the 
Val d'Amo. It is not unlikely that, in this antediluvian period, England was connected 
with the Continent, and that the excavation of the shallow channel of the Straits of 
Dover, and of a considerable portion of that part of tiie German ocean which lies be- 
tween the east coast of England and die mouths of the Elbe and Rhine, may have been 
the efibct of diluvial denudation. The average depth of all this tract of water is said to 
be less than thirty &tfaoms« 



DISCOVERED AT KIBKDALE, IN YORKSHIRE. 45 

ii^ed antecedently to the great inundatiQn by which they were extir- 
pated is a distinct matter of inquiry, on which the highest authorities 
are by no means agreed. It is the opinion of Cuvier, on the one hand» 
that as some of the fossil animals differ firom existing species of the 
genera to which they belong, it is probable they had a constitution 
adapted to endure the rigours of a northern winter; and this opinion 
dmves support from the Siberian elephant's carcase, discovered with 
all its flesh entire, in the ice of Tungusia, and having its skin partially 
covered by long hair and wool ; and firom the hairy rhinoceros found 
in 1771 in the same country, in the frozen gravel of Vilhoui, having 
its flesh and skin still perfect, and of which the head and feet are 
now preserved at Petersburg, together with the skeleton of the ele- 
phant above alluded to, and a large quantity of its wooL To which 
Cuvier adds the further fact, that there are genera of existing ani- 
mals, e. g. the fox tribe, which have species adapted to the extremes 
both of polar and tropical climates. 

On the other hand, it is contended that the abundant occurrence of 
fossil crocodiles and tortoises, and of vegetables and shells (e. g. palms 
and nautili), nearly allied in structure and character to those which are 
now pecuUar to hot climates, in the secondary strata, as well as in the 
diluvium of high north latitudes, renders it more probable that the 
climate was warm in which these plants and animals lived and died, 
than that a change of constitution and habit should have taken place 
in so many animal and vegetable genera, the existing members of which 
are rarely found except in the warmer regions of the present earth. 
To this argument, I would add a still greater objection arising from 
the difficulty of maintaining such animals as those we are considering 



46 ACCOtTNT OF FOSSIL TEETH AND BONES 

amid the i*ig0ii» o£ t polar winter; and this difficulty cannot be 
fioited by Buppo«ing them to have migrated periodically, like the 
mUisk ox and rein deer of Melville Island ; for in the case of croco- 
diles ftnd tortoises extensive emigration is almost impossible, and not 
less iso to such an unwieldy animal as the hippopotamus when out of 
water. It is equally difficult to imagine that they could have passed 
tibeir winters in lakes or rivers firo2en up with ice ; and though the 
d^hant &nd rhinoceros, if clothed in wool, may have fed themselves 
on branches of trees and brushwood during the extreme severities of 
winter, still I see not how even these were to be obtained in the 
frozen regions of Siberia, which at present produce little more than 
moss and lidiens, which during great part of the year are buried 
under impenetrable ice and snow ; yet it is in these regions of ex- 
treme cold, on the utmost verge of the now habitable world, that the 
bones of elephants are said to be found occasionally crowded in heaps 
along the shores of the icy sea from Archangel to fiehring's Straits, 
forming whole islands composed of bones and mud at the mouth of 
the Lena, and encased in icebergs, from which they are melted out by 
the solar heat of their short summer, along the coast of Tungusia, in 
sufficient numbers to form an important article of conmierce*. 



* " Lieutenant Kotzebue has discovered, in the western part of the gulf to the north 
of Behiing*s Straits, a mountun covered with verdure (moss and grass) composed in- 
teriorly of solid ice. On arriving at a place where the shore rises almost perpendicu- . 
larly from the sea to the height of 100 feet, and continues afterwards to extend with a 
gradual inclination, they observed masses of the purest ice 100 feet high, preserved 
imder the above vegetable carpet. The ]M>rtion exposed to the sun was melting and 
sending much water into the sea. An undoubted proof of this ice being primitive {u£. 
not formed by any causes now in action), was afforded by the great number of bones and 
teeth of mammoths which make their appearance when it is melted. The soil of these 



DISCOVERED AT KIEKDALB, IN YORKSHIRE. 47 

Between tibiese two conflicting opinions we are compelled to make 
our dimce : there seems to be no third or intermediate state with 
which both may be compatible. It is not, however, to my present 
porpofie to discuss the difficulties that will occur on both sides, till 
the further progress of geological science shall have afforded us more 
ample information as to the structure of our globe^ and have supplied 
those data, without which all opinions that can be advanced on the 
subject must be premature, and amount to no more than plausible 
ccmjeeture. At present I am concerned only to establish two im- 
portant facts, 1st, that there has been a recent and general inundation 
of the globe; and, £d, that the animals whose remains are found 
interned in the wreck of that inundation were natives of high north 
latitudes, and not drifted to their present place from equatorial regions 
by the waters that caused their destruction. One things however, is 
nearly certain, viz. that if any change of climate has taken place, it 
took place suddenly; for how otherwise could the elephant's c^r- 
cas^ found entire in ice at the mouth of the Lena, have been pre- 
served from putrefaction till it was frozen up with the waters of the 
then existing ocean ? Nor is it less probable that this supposed 
change was contemporaneous with, and produced by, the same cause 
which brought on the inundation. What this cause was, whether a 
diaii^ in the inclination in the earth's axis, or the near appi!oach of 
a comet, or any other cause or combination of causes purely a^trono* 

mountains, which, to a certdn heighti are covered with an abundant herbage, is only 
lialf a foot diick ; it is composed of a mixture of clay, earth, sand, and mould; the ice 
melts gxadnally beneath it, the carpet fidls downward3 and continues to thrive ; the 
latitude iB66PW3& N.*"— G^6erf s Annalen, 1821, quoted in the Journal of Science 
and flie Arts, No. S7, page 8S6. 



48 CHRONOLOGICAL INFERENCES FROM 

mical, is a question the discusidoii of which is foreign to the object of 
the present memoir. 

Having thus far described the principal facts I observed in the 
interior of the den at Kirkdale, and pointed out the most important 
conclusions that seem to arise from them, I proceed to consider the^ 
chronological inferences that may be derived from the state of the 
bones, and of the mud and stalagmite that accompany them^ and to 
extract the following detail of events that have been going on suc- 
cessively within this curious cave. 

1st. There appears to have been a period (and if we may form an 
estimate from the small quantity of stalagmite now found on the 
actual floor of the cave, a very short one,) during which this aperture 
in the rock existed in its present state, but was not tenanted by the 
hysenas. The removal of the mud, which now entirely covers the 
floor, would be necessary to ascertain the exact quantity of stalagmite 
referable to this period ; but it cannot be very great, and can only be 
expected to exist where there is much stalactite also upon the roof 
and sides. 

The 2d period was that during which the cave was inhabited by 
the hysenas, and the stalactite and stalagmite were still forming. 
The constant passage of the hyaenas in so low a cave would much 
interrupt this deposition ; as they would strike ofl^ the former from 
the roof and sides by their constant ingress and egress ; and accord- 
ingly in some specimens of the breccia, we find mixed with the bones 
fragments of stalactite, that seem to have been thus knocked ofl^ from 
the roof and sides of the cave, whilst it was inhabited by hyaenas 



THE STATE OF THE CAVE AT KIRKDALE. 49 

before the introduction of the mud. I have one example of a hollow 
stalactitic tube that lay in an horizontal position in the midst of, and 
parallel to some splinters of large bones, and the unbroken ulna of a 
rat : all these are united by stalagmite ; and it is impossible that this 
stalactitic pipe could have been formed in any other than a vertical 
position, hanging from the roof or sides. In other specimens of the 
breccia, there are spUt fragments of the teeth of deer and hyasna; and 
in almost every portion I have seen, either of this breccia or of the 
antediluvian stalagmite, there are teeth of the water rat. Mr. Gibson 
has presented to the Sritish Museum a mass exceeding a foot in 
diameter, composed of fragments of many large bones, mixed with 
some teeth of the hyasna, ox, and several other animals, and also of 
rats, all adhering firmly together in a matrix of stalagmite. During 
the formation of the stalagmitic matter, no mud appears to have 
been introduced ; and had there been any in the cave at the time 
whilst the osseous breccia was forming, it would either have excluded 
all access of the stalagmite to the bones, or have been mixed and 
entangled with it, forming a spongy mass, as it does at the root of the 
staglamites that Ue on its surface. The universal cover of mud pre- 
vented me from ascertaining whether the bottom of the cave is any 
where polished (like the tiger's den before alluded to), in those parts 
which must have been the constant gangway of the hysenas. 

The 3d period is that at which the mud was introduced and the 
animals extirpated, viz. the period of the deluge. I have already 
stated that the animal remains are found principally in the lower 
regions of this sediment of mud, which appears to have been intro- 
4uced in a fluid state, so as to envelope the bony fragments then 



50 CHRONOLOGICAL INFERENCES FROM 

lying on the bottom of the cave : and the power of water to introduce 
such sediments is shown by the state of Wokey Hole, and similar 
caverns in the Mendip Hills, and Derbyshire, which are subject to 
be filled with water occasionally by heavy land floods ; the etkct of 
these floods being to leave on the floor a sediment of mud simUar to 
that which covers the bones and osseous breccia in the cave of Kirk- 
dale. I have also mentioned that there is no alternation of this mud 
with beds of bone or of stalagmite, such as would have occurred had 
it been produced by land floods often repeated ; once, and once only, 
it appears to have been introduced ; and we may consider its vehicle 
. to have been the turbid waters of the same inundation that produced 
universally the diluvial gravel and loam on the surfece without : these 
would enter and fill the cave, and there becoming quiescent, would 
deposit the mud suspended in them (as we see daily silt and warp 
deposited in quiet spots by waters of muddy rivers) along the whole 
bottom of the den, where it has remained undisturbed ever since. 
We cannot refer this mud to a land flood, or succession of land floods, 
partly for the reasons before stated, and partly fi-om the general 
dryness of the cave; had it been liable to be filled with muddy 
water, it would have been so at the time I visited it in December, 
18S1, at the end of one of the most rainy seasons ever remembered; 
but even then there were not the slightest symptoms of any such 
occurrence, and a few scanty droppings from the roof were the only 
traces of water entering the area of the cave. 

The 4th period is that during which the stalagmite was deposited 
which invests the upper surface of the mud. The quantity of this 
stalagmite appears to be much greater than that formed in the two 



THE STATE OP THE CAVE AT KIRKDALE. 51 

periods, during and before which, the cave was tenanted by hya&nas. 
In the whole of this 4th period no creature appears to have entered 
the cave, with the exception possibly of mice, rats *, weasels, rabbits, 
and foxes, until it was opened last summer ; and no other process of 
any kind appears to have been going on in it except the formation of 
stalactitic and stalagmitic infiltrations : the stratum of diluvial sedi- 
ment marks the point of time at which the latter state of things began 
and the former ceased. As there is no mud at all on the top or sides 
of the cave, we have no mark to distinguish the relative quantities of 
stalactite formed on those parts during the periods we have been 
speaking of: should it however contain in any part a firagment of 
bone or tooth of any of the extinct animals, it will be probable that 
this part was antediluvial. A farther argument jnay be drawn fix)m 
the limited quantity of postdiluvian stalactite^ as well as firom the 
undecayed condition of the bones, to show that the time elapsed since 
the introduction of the diluvial mud has not been one of excessive 
length, nor at all exceeding that which M. Cuvier, after comparing 
the traditions of a deluge that prevail among all nations with natural 
phenomena, infers to have elapsed since that great and universal 
inundation which has overwhelmed the earth, at a period which, he 
says, he is of opinion with De Luc and Dolomieu, cannot have ex- 
ceeded five or six thousand years ago. 



^ Mr. Salmond has a portion of the upper stalagmite, with the entire skeleton of a 
rati embedded between two of the upper laminee of the stalagmitic crust Thb animal 
must have entered the cave, and died there, not long ago. 



H 2 



54 OPEN FISSURE IN DUNCOMBE PARK, 

mentality of the hysenas^ and not of the diluvial waters, that the animal 
remains were collected in such quantities in the adjacent den at 
Kirkdale. 

At about a mile east of Kirby Moorside, at a spot called the Sack 
of the Parks, there are other quarries on both sides of a comb that 
descends rapidly into the valley of the Dove, in the face of which 
there occur several small caverns and vertical fissures : these fissures 
vary fix>m one to six feet in breadth, and rise fix>m the bottom of the 
quarry to the surface of the land, and are entirely filled with diluvial 
loam, of the same kind as that in the caves both here and at Kirkdale, 
and the Manor Vale. It was in the upper part of one of the. fissures 
that several human skeletons were found and taken out in the year 
1786, but the spot on which they occurred has been destroyed in con- 
tinuing the workings of the quarry : they were probably bodies that 
had been interred here after a battle. 



OPEN FISSURE IN DUNCOMBE PARK. 

The newly discovered fissure in Buncombe Park dijBTers fix>m those 
we have been last describing in the circumstance of its being of post- 
diluvian origin ; it contains no diluvial sediment and no pebbles, and 
has within it the remains of animals of existing species only, and these 
in a much more recent and more perfect state of preservation than 
the bones at Kirkdale. It is a great irregular crack or chasm, in the 
solid limestone rock, which forms a steep and lofty cliff on the right 
side of the valley of the Bye, being in that most beautiful valley of 
denudation which descends firom Rivaulx Abbey through Dunoombe 



CONTAINING POSTDILUVIAL BONES. 55 

Park to the town of Helmsley, and on the left bank of which are the 
magnificent terraces of Rivaulx Abbey, and of the gardens at Dun- 
combe Park. The crack has probably been formed by a subsidence 
of part of the chff towards the valley, and terminates upwards near 
its edge, m a small aperture, about twenty feet long and three or four 
feet broad, which is almost concealed and overgrown with bushes, and 
which being nearly at right angles to the edge of the cli£^ lies like a 
pitfall across the path of animals that pass that way. It descends 
obliquely downwards, and presents several ledges or landing places 
and irregular lateral chambers, the floors of which are strewed over 
with loose angular fragments of limestone^ fallen firom the sides and 
rooi^ and with dislocated skeletons of animals that have from time to 
time fallen in &om above and perished. One of Mr. Buncombe's 
park-keepers had been for many years aware of the existence of 
bones in this chasm, but had never mentioned it till my second visit 
to Duncombe Park, when we examined it, descending by means of a 
rope, and found it to contain the skeletons of dogs, sheep, deer, goats, 
and hogs, lodged at various depths on the landing places I have just 
mentioned : the bones lay loose and naked on the actual spots on 
which the animals had died, and to which they had probably &llen 
when passing carelessly along the surface of the Park above ; they 
were neither broken, nor buried in loam, nor incrusted with stalag-- 
mite^ as at Kirkdale, but amply stripped of their flesh ; they are not 
adherent to the tongue when fiw^ured, but retain much more animal 
matter, and are in all respects more fi'esh and recent, than those 
which occur at Kirkdale entombed beneath the loam. 

In a geological point of view^ the occurrence of these bones, under 
the circumstances above described, is important, as illustrating the 



56 OTHER CAVES IN ENGLAND- 

manner in which the bones of antediluvian animals may have been 
accumulated by falling into similar fissures, which are now filled up 
with diluvial mud and pebbles ; for if fissures existed (as th^ im- 
doubtedly did) on the antediluvian face of the earth in much greater 
abundance than since that grand aqueous revolution, which has 
entirely filled up so many of them with its detritus, there is no reason 
why the then existing animals should not have fallen into them and 
perished, as modem animals do in the comparatively few cavities 
that remain still open in our limestone districts : and when we con- 
sider that it is the habit of graminivorous animals to be constantly 
traversing the surface of the ground in every direction in pursuit of 
food, it is obvious that they are subject in a greater degree than those 
which are carnivorous to the perpetual danger of falling into any 
fissure or imperfectly closed chasm that may lie in their way ; and in 
this circumstance we see an explanation of the comparatively rare 
occurrence of the remains of beasts of prey in the osseous breccia of 
the antediluvian fissures, although they also perished in them, occa- 
sionally as the dogs do at this day in the open fissure at Duncombe 
ParL 



Many of the arguments arising from the detail of facts we have 
been describing in Yorkshire are appUcable to the illustration of 
analogous phenomena, where the evidence of their history is less com- 
plete. In our own country there are seven other instances of bones 
similarly deposited in caverns, the origin of some of which, though 
not before satisfactorily made out, becomes evident as a corollary fi-om 
the proofs afforded by the cave at Kirkdale ; these are in the counties 
of Somerset, Derby, Devon, and Glamorgan. 



CAVE WITH BONES, IN SOMERSET. 67 



L— CAVE OF HUTTON, IN THE MENDIP HILLS. 

The first I shall mention is that of teeth and bones of elephants 
and other antediluvian animals discovered in the Mendip Hills in 
cavities of mountain limestone, which were lined, and nearly filled 
with ochreous day. These are preserved in the collection of the 
Rev. Mr. Catcott, in the City Library at Sristol. The following ac- 
count of them is extracted by my fiiend the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, 
&om Mr. Catcott's MS. notes ; he has added also a few explanatory 
observations. 

" The ochre pits were worked about the middle of the last century, 
near the summit of the Mendip Hills, on the S. of the village of 
Hutton, near Banwell, at an elevation of from three hundred to four 
hundred feet above the level of the sea : they are now abandoned *. 
^ The ochre was pursued through fissures in the mountain lime* 
stone, occasionally expanding into larger cavernous chambers, their 
range being in a steep descent, and almost perpendicular. Thus, in 
opening the pits, the workmen, after removing eighteen inches of 
vegetable mould, and four feet of rubbly ochre, came to a fissure in 
the limestone rock, about eighteen inches broad, and four feet long. 
This was filled with good ochre, but as yet no bones were discovered : 

* I shall presendy mention an analogous case of the occurrence of ochre in a similar 
series of caverns in Derbyshire, near Wirksworth, and in some caves and fissures, filled 
with a similar accumulation of diluvial matter, on the continent, at Theux, near Spa. In 
the latter case it is accompanied with a large admixture of pebbles, but no bones. 



68 CAVE OF BUTTON IN MENDIP, 

it continued to the depth of eight yards, and then opened into a 
cavern about twenty feet square, and four high ; the floor of this cave 
consisted of good ochre, strewed on the surface of which were mul- 
titudes of white bones, which were also found dispersed through the 
interior of the ochreous mass. In the centre of this chamber, a large 
stalactite depended from the roof; and beneath, a similar mass rose 
from the floor, almost touching it : in one of the side walls was an 
opening about three feet square, which conducted through a passage 
eighteen yards in length, to a second cavern, ten yards in length, and 
five in breadth ; both the passage and cavern being fiUed with ochre 
and bones. Another passage, about six feet square, branched ofi^ 
laterally from this chamber about four yards below its entrance ; this 
continued nearly on the same level for eighteen yards ; it was filled 
with rubbly ochre, fragments of limestone rounded by attrition, and 
lead ore confusedly mixed together ; many large bones occurring in 
the mass ; among which four magnificent teeth of an elephant (the 
whole number belonging to a single skull) were found. Another shaft 
was sunk from the surface perpendicularly into this branch, and ap- 
pears to have followed the course of a fissure, since it is said that all 
the way nothing appeared but rubble, large stones, ochre, and bones : 
in the second chamber, immediately beyond the entrance of the branch 
just described, there appeared a large deep opening, tending per- 
pendicularly downwards, filled with the same congeries of rubble, 
ochre, bones, &c. ; this was cleared to the depth of five yards ; this 
point, being the deepest part of the workings, was estimated at about 
thirty-six yards beneath the surface of the hill : a few yards to tlie 



CONTAINING LARGE BONES. 59 

west of this another similar hole occurred, in which was fbund a large 
head, which we shall have occasion presently to notice." 

The bones from this cavern, preserved in Mr. Catcott's cabinet in 
the Bristol library, are the teeth and fragments of some bones of the 
elephant ; and similar remains of horses, oxen, and two species of stag, 
besides the skeleton, nearly complete^ of ,a fox, and the metacarpal 
bone of a very large species of bear, nearly five inches in length. 
There are also molar teeth of the hog, and a large tusk of the upper 
jaw; (see Plate XL fig. 80, 81, 82, 83.) This tusk probably be- 
longed to the head mentioned in the MS. as having been found in the 
pit above described, and of which the following particulars are spe^ 
dfied : — ^^ The head was stated by the workmen to have been about 
three or four feet long, fourteen inches broad at the top, or head part, 
and three inches at the snout. It had all the teeth perfect, and four 
tusks, the larger tusks about fovir inches long out of the head, and the 
lesser about three inches ♦." The tusk now preserved is about three 
inches long, its enamel is fine, it is longitudinally striated, and on one 
side of the apex truncated and worn flat by use. 

Some farther details of the bones found in the cave at Hutton are 
given as a note in Mr. Catcott's Treatise on the Deluge (page 861, 
first edition), in which he specifies six molar teeth of the elephant, 
one of them lying in the jaw, part of a tusk, part of a head, four thigh 
bones, three ribs, with a multitude of lesser bones, belonging probably 
to the same animal. " Besides these,'' he adds, " we picked up part 

* The head here described is evidently that of a hog ; the account of its length 
being exaggerated by the workmen, from whose report alone Mr. Catcott gives the mea^ 
suxes of it. The head itself was lost or destroyed before he had seen it 

i2 



60 CAVE NEAR CLIFTON. 

of a large deer's horn very flat, and the slough of a horn (or the 
spongy porous substance that occupies the inside of the horns of oxen), 
of an extraordinary size, together with a great variety of teeth and 
small bones belonging to different species of land animals. The bones 
and teeth were extremely well preserved, all retaining their native 
whiteness, and, as they projected from the sides and top of the cavity, 
exhibited an appearance not unlike the inside of a charnel-house/' 

It appears most probable, from the description given of these 
bones and horns, that they were not dragged in by beasts of prey, but 
either drifted in by the diluvian waters, or derived from animals that 
had fidlen in before the introduction of the ochreous loam ; the loam 
itself and pebbles are clearly of diluvial origin. 

On the summit of Sandford Hill, on the east of Hutton, bones of 
the elephant were also, according to Mr. Catcott's MSS., discovered 
four fathoms deep among loose rubble. 

a.— CAVE ON DERDHAM DOWN, NEAR CLIFTON. 

A second case of fossil fragments of bone has been communicated to 
me by Mr. J. S. Miller, ofSristol, as discoveredby Mr. Benton,in a fissure 
of mountain limestone, near Clifton, by the turnpike-gate on Derdham 
Down. The fissure was two feet broad, and contained fragments of 
stone and stalagmite. The bones lie beneath this breccia, and are not 
rolled, but have evidently been fractured by violence : they are partially 
incrusted with stalactitic matter, and the broken surfeces have also an 
external coating of thin ochreous stalactite, showing the fracture to have 
been ancient. One specimen, the property of Mr. Miller, displays the 
curious circumstance of a fossil joint of the horse : it is the tarsus joint, 



CAVES IN DERBYSHIRE. 61 

in which the astragalus retains its natural position between the tibia 
and OS calcis ; these are held together by a stalagmitic cement^ and 
were probably left in this position by some beast of prey that had 
gnawed off the deficient portions of the tibia and os calcis. 

3.— CAVE AT BALLEYE, NEAR WIRKSWORTH. 

A third case is that of some bones and molar teeth of the elephant, 
found in another cavity of mountain limestone at Balleye, near Wirks- 
worth, in Derbyshire, in the year 1663 ; one of these teeth is now in 
the collection of Mr. White Watson, of Bakewell. There is, I believe, 
no other account of the circumstances under which these remains 
were found than the subjoined MS. in the possession of Mr. Wat- 
son, by a miner, named George Mower ♦. 

4.— DREAM CAVE, NEAR WIRKSWORTH. 

A fourth example has just occurred in the same neighbourhood, 
in a lead mine called the Dream, in the hamlet of Callow, about one 
mile W. of Wirksworth, towards Hopton, on the property of Philip 
Gell, Esq., whose attention has been judiciously directed to the sub- 
ject, and by whose exertions nearly the entire skeleton of a rhinoceros 
has been extracted, together with some considerable remains of the 
horse, ox, and deer. On being informed of this discovery, through 
the kindness of my friend the Eev. D. Stacy, I set off immediately 
for Derbyshire, for the purpose of examining all its circumstances, 
and found them to be nearly as follows. In the month of December, 

^ In sinking for lead at Bawlee, within two miles of Wirksworth, A. D. 1663, they 
came to an open place as large as a church, and found a skeleton reclining against the 
aide, so large that his brain-pan would have held two strike of com, and so big that 
they could not get it up without breaking it. My grandfather having a share in the 
said mine, they sent him a tooth, weighing four pounds three ounces. — Geo. Mower. 



62 CAVE NEAR WIRKSWORTH, 

1822, some miners engaged in pursuing a lead vein had sunk a shaft 
about sixty feet through solid mountain limestone (see Plate XX. 
A. B. H.), when they suddenly penetrated a large cavern e, filled 
entirely to the roof with a confused mass of argillaceous earth 
and fragments of stone, through which they attempted to continue 
their shaft perpendicularly downwards to the vein below; in this 
operation they were interrupted by the earth and firagments be* 
ginning to move and fall in upon them continually firom the sides^ 
until the roof of a large cavern became apparent, in consequence 
of the subsidence and removal of the matter with which it had been 
filled. It was nearly in the centre of this subsiding mass, and at the 
height of many feet above the actual floor of the cave, that the work- 
men discovered the bones f g, which I am about to describe, and of 
which those belonging to the rhinoceros g lay very near each other, 
and probably formed an entire skeleton before they were disturbed 
by the agitation and sinking of the materials e, in which they were 
imbedded. The following parts of a rhinoceros, all apparently firom 
the same individual, have been collected ; viz. the head, its central 
part being much broken, ten molar teeth, one entire side of the 
under jaw, and a large fi*agment of the other side; the atlas entire 
and fitting the head, two cervical vertebrae, several dorsal and two 
caudal ditto, with numerous firagments of ribs ; the sacrum and 
several parts of the pelvis, the humerus, ulna, and radius of both 
fore legs, the femur and tibia of both the hind legs, both patellae, 
and several pair of corresponding bones from the right and left feet, 
and the joints of the tarsus and carpus. All these are in a state of 
high preservation, and fi*om a nearly full grown animal, and being 



CONTAINING AN ENTIRE RHINOCEROS. 63 

found so close together, are without doubt portions dT a skeleton 
which lay entire in the middle of the cave before the materials that 
had filled it began to subside. There were no supernumerary bones, 
to indicate the presence of a second rhinoceros ; but in the same 
cave were found some teeth and bones of a horse, and many entire 
bones from the legs of a very large ox, all apparently from one 
individual ; also many bones of deer from at least four individuals, 
and fragments of horns, none so large as those of red deer, and some 
of them palmated. (See Plate XXII. fig. 3, 4.) None of these 
bones have marks of partial decay on one surface only, as at Kirkdale 
and Plymouth ; and from this circumstance we may infer that they 
were derived from animals that perished by the waters that introduced 
them to the cave : they are of a yellowish brown colour, similar to 
those from Eirkdale. AU these valuable specimens have, by the 
munificence of Mr. GreD, been deposited in the Oxford Museum '*^. 
For some time after the cave was penetrated there was no apparent 
commimication between its interior and the surface ; but as the loose 
materials that at first filled it subsided into and were taken out by the 
shaft, a sinking appeared in the field above at I., and a further mass 
of the same kind, viz. argillaceous earth and fragments of limestone, 
mixed with a few rolled pebbles of quartz, continued to fall down- 
wards into it (like the contents of a lime-kiln, sinking towards the 
lower aperture by which the lime is extracted), until a large open 
chasm d, more than six feet broad, and fifty feet deep, was left en- 



* Mr. Gell has also in his possession the horn of a very large urus, that was found 
at a considerable depth in digging away the diluvium near the west mouth of the tunnel 
of the Cromford Canal, at Butterley, about thirty years ago. 



64 CAVE CONTAINING RHINOCEROS. 

tirely void, and seen to form a direct communication from the side of 
the cave to the surface of the field above. Till undermined in this 
manner, the fissure d had been entirely filled, and the surface afforded 
not the slightest indication of its existence ; at present it is restored 
to the same state of an open chasm in which it pi'obably was hetme 
the access of the diluvian waters, that appear to have swept into it 
the mud and rocky fragments which filled both it and the cave below ; 
and on examining its sides, I found the projecting parts of them rubbed 
and scratched by the descent of these heavy bodies as they dropped in 
from above. From the situation of the rhinoceros' bones in the middle 
of this drifted mass, and in the centre of the cave, added to the juxta- 
position oi^ so many of the component parts of one entire skeleton, 
jvhich are neither rolled, or gnawed, or broken, except by the move* 
m^it they have recently undergone, and the pickaxes of the miners, it 
seems probable that they are the remains of a carcase that was drifted 
in entire at the same time with the diluvial detritus, in the midst of 
which they were found imbedded : had they been washed in singly, 
they would have been slightly rolled and scattered irregularly, and 

we should probably have found parts of more than a single individual ; 

« 

and had they been derived from an animal that fell into the fissure, and 
perished before the introduction of the diluvium, they would not have 
been suspended, as they were, all together nearly in the middle of it, 
but would have lain either on the actual floor of the cave beneath the 
loam and pebbles, or have been scattered and drifted irregularly to 
different and distant parts of its lowest recesses. I could discover no 
stalagmite, and but few traces of stalactite in any part of this cavern, 
or of the fissure immediately connected with it 



CAVE CONTAINING OCHRE. 



65 



In the same field with the Dream Mine» and on the upper edge 
of a steep dediyity, is a small crag that overhangs the subjacent valley^ , 
and has in its face an aperture called the Fox Holes, by which we 
enter an extensive suite of connected chambers and vaultings of irre- 
gular size and shape, perforating the rock in various directions, arid 
at various elevations. In all of these the floor is covered to the 
depth of many feet, whilst some of the smaller ones are entirely filled 
with a mass of clay and ochreous loam, which in many parts is suf- 
ficiently pure to have been extracted for sale as a coarse pigment, and 
to have caused much of the diluvial sediment within these chambers 
to have been dug over in search of it, as was done in the cavernous 
fissure of Hutton in the Mendips, just described as having contained ^ 
the bones of an elephant and other animals imbedded in ochre. In 
the cave of Fox Holes, now before us, no bones have been discovered, 
nor are there any traces of pebbles or angular firagments of stone 
accept near the mouth. The quantity of stalactite and stalagmite 
also is small : and this little occurs chiefly near the entrance, 
where the roof is clustered with tufts of beautiful lac lunce. The 
position of the cave on the edge of a high cli£^ and &r above the 
possible influence of any floods firom the nearest brooks or rivulets, 
obliges us to refer the enormous deposit it contains of ochreous mud 
to no other than diluvial origin ; and Mr. Gell informs me, that in 
all the caves and in the greater number of the fissures which he has 
for many years been in the habit of firequently exploring with the 
miners in this low peak district of Derbyshire, he has constantly ob- 
served a deposit of mud and stony fi*agments similar to that Which I 

K 



66 FISSUKES NEAR WiaXSWORTH. 

examined with him in tihe Dream Ga^^em and the Fox Holes, and 
that almost all these apertures oecur in eloTated situations^ where not 
a stream or rivulet exists at the present time, to the flood waters d^ 
which it would be possible to ides their introduction. The absence 
of pebbles and st<my fragments in the interior of the cave of Fox 
Holes may be explained by the ckcumstanee of there being no fissure 
communicating from it upwards to the surface whilst its mouth is 
placed in a nearly vertical cliff that faces ihwanfe to the valley. 

In the crag called Yeo-Cli£^ immediately on the west of Wirks- 
worth, and in other natural cliffii that occur on the nordi side of the 
same town, are lofty precipices formed by the edges of the metalli- 
ferous limestone strata. These are seen to be intersected from top 
to bottom by numerous and nearly vertical fissures or veins, many of 
which are still filled with various kinds of spar and ore ; others par- 
tially empty, in consequence of the removal of these substances by 
the operations of mining ; and others again wholly or partially filled 
with diluvial detritus. These metalliferous limestone strata compose 
the upper table-lands of much of this district, and have been for cen- 
turies ransacked in pursuit of lead. They are in all parts intersected 
by fissures similar to those exposed in the cliffs near Wirksworth, 
and wMeh like them are either filled with spar, and form the most 
proUfic deposits of metallic ore^ or are choked up with mud and rocky 
fragments drifted in by diluvial agency, or (which is but rarely the 
case) remain still open, and have appareirldy been never filled with 
any thiiKg since the fracture of the rock took pHace to wMdi they owe 
theiii origin; In these kst we find no other extrtmeoua substances 



CAVES AT ORESTON. NEAR PLYMOUTH. 67 

than a few fragments of limestone that scale off daily and fall ftorn 
their sides, and the bones of cattle and recent animals that tumble in 
continually^ and there perish. 



6.— THREE SETS OF CAVES NEAR PLYMOUTH. 

The fifth example I have to adduce is that of three deposits of 
bones discovered at Oreston, near Plymouth, by Mr. Whidby, in re- 
moving the entire mass of a hill of transition limestone for the con- 
struction of the Breakwater. The first of these is described by Sir 
Everard Home and Mr. Whidby^ in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1817. They were found in a cavern fifteen feet wide, twelve 
high, and forty-five long, and about four feet above high-water mark ; 
it was filled with solid day (probably diluvial mud) in which the 
teeth and bones were imbedded, and was intersected in blasting away 
the body of the rock to make the Breakwater. The state of the 
teeth and bones was the same with that of those found in the caves 
already described ; they were much broken, but not in the slightest 
degree rounded by attrition, and Sir Everard Home has ascertained 
them to belong exclusively to a species of rhinoceros. A similar dis- 
covery of teeth and bones was made in 1820, in a smaller cavern, 
distant one hundred and twenty yards &om the former, being one 
foot high, eighteen wide, and twenty long, and eight feet above the 
high-water mark ; a description of its contents is given in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions for 1821, by the same gentlemen ; it contained 
no stalactite, which abounds in many of the adjacent caverns. Sir 

K 2 



68 CAVES AND FISSURES AT ORESTON. 

Everard Home describes these teeth and bones as belon^g to the 
rhinoceros, deer, and a species of bear. 

A third, and still more extensive discovery, was made in the same 
quarries in the smnmer of 1822, by the intersection of other apertures 
in the middle of the solid limestone, containing an immense deposit of 
bones and teeth imbedded in a similar earthy matrix to that in which 
they were found in the two former cases. On this discovery being com- 
municated to me through the kindness of Mr. Barrow, I went imme- 
diately to Plymouth accompanied by Mr. Warburton, and found the 
circiunstances to be nearly as follows : In a vast quarry produced by 
the removal of an entire hill of limestone for the construction of the 
Breakwater, there is an artificial cliff ninety feet in height, the face of 
which is perforated and intersected by large irregular cracks and ca* 
vities, which are more or less filled up with loam, sand, or stalactite. 
These apertures are sections of fissures and caverns that have been 
laid open in working away the body of the rock, and are disposed in 
it after the manner of chimney flues in a wall ; but they attracted no 
attention till the discovery of bones in them above mentioned. Some 
of them have lateral communications with adjacent cavities, others are 
insulated and single ; some rise almost vertically towards the surface, 
others are tortuous, passing obliquely upwards, downwards^ inwards, 
and in all directions in the most irregular manner through the body 
of the rock. Apertures of the same kind occur in continual succes- 
sion in the limestone of the natural cliff that forms the shore firom 
Oreston to Stonehouse; and at the latter place^ immediately on the 
north side of the Marine barracks, is another large quarry, in the face 
of which I found four apertures of the same kind leading also into 



CAVES AND FISSURES AT CHUDLEIGH. 69 

caverns, the floor of all which was covered with a deep bed of mud, 
over the surface of which was spread a crust of stalagmite ; but as 
these caverns have not been examined, no bones have as yet been 
found in them. The occurrence, however, of fissures and caves more 
or less filled with mud, sand, fragments of stone and stalactite, is 
universal in the limestone rocks of this district, whilst the dispersion 
of bones through them is partial. The caves of Kent's Hole and 
others near Babicombe and Torbay are notorious examples of this 
kind* 

These fissures and caverns are so connected, so often confluent 
and inosculating with each other, and so identical as to their con- 
tents, that there appears to be no difierence as to the time or manner 
in which they were filled ; indeed, something intermediate between 
a cavern and a fissure, which we may call a cavernous fissure, is the 
more common form under which they occur. In many of those which 
are nearly vertical the communication with the surface is obvious ; 

* At the extensive quarries in the rock of Chudleighi composed of the same tran- 
sition limestone as that of Plymouth, we found exactly the same phenomena of caves and 
fissures, partially or wholly filled with a similar diluvium, to that at Oreston. In one of 
the fissures so filled, which was several feet in breadth, and intersected the limestone 
exactly like a great wall or dyke, Mr. Warburton discovered a few small fragments of 
bone, and in all of them there were numerous pebbles of chert and chalk flint, and tran- 
sition slate, mixed with the mud that formed the principal substance which filled these 
fissures up to the very surface of the soil. In another large fissure fragments of lime- 
stone predominated, and the quantity of mud was small ; and here the entire mass was 
united by stalagmite into a breccia so solid that it remains erect, projecting like a thick 
wall after the removal of the limestone firom each side of it, and at first sight looks more 
like a mass of rude masonry running across the quarry than a natural production ; a 
similar wall, composed of fragments of oolite cemented by stalagmite, crosses the middle 
of a large quarry of oolite on Banner Down, near Bath. The solid rock that once in. 
closed it has here also been removed from both its sides, whilst at each extremity it is 
seen to be prolonged into the body of the natural rock, and entirely to fill up a fissure 
therein of considerable breadth. 



70 DILUVIAL DETRITUS IN 

whilst in others that traverse the rock obliquely it can be seen only 
wh^e their upper extremity intersects the sur&ce of the rock, and if 
this happens not in a diff, but along the levdi fiice of the country, it 
is usually so completdy filled and covered up with earth as not to be 
discovarable unless by approaching it through the caverns fi:om below. 
We have in this circumstance a satisfactory reason why so many 
cavities, having at first view no apparent communication with the 
upper surface, are intersected in working the central and deepest 
portions of these limestone rocks *. 

In almost all the cavities there occurs a deposit of diluvial detritus, 
consisting of mud and sand, and angular firagments of limestone ; 
these substances sometimes entirely fill up the lower chambers, and are 
usually lodged in various quantities and proportions on the shelves and 
ledges, and lateral hollows of the middle and upper regions. The com- 
position of the mud, or earthy portion of this diluvium at Plymouth, 
differs in some degree from that of the cave at Kirkdale, having 
been derived from the detritus of strata of a difierent character ; it is 
of a redder colour, and looser texture, and less calculated to protect 
the bones in it from the access of atmospheric air and water. In one 
large vault at Oreston, where the quantity of diluvium was very great, 
it was stratified, or rather sorted and divided into laminae of sand, earth, 
and clay, var3dng in fineness, but all referable to the diluvial wash- 
ings of the adjacent country. It is often partially interspersed with 
small fragments of clay-slate and quartz. The sand and loam are in 
many places invested with, and cemented together by, stalagmite^ but 

* See a good iUiistration of this in Plate XX., and the description of the cave At the 
Dream Mine, near Wirks worthy at page 62, et seq. 



CAVES AND FISSURES- Tl 

not SO firmly as in the Gibraltar breccia^ and in much of that which 
occurs in the caves of Grennany : portions of bone and single firag^ 
ments of rock are also found occasionally incased with a thin crust or 
coating of the same substance ; but, generally speaking, it is not suf- 
ficiently abundant to hold the mud and bones together in a solid 
mass after they are moved fi*om the cave. In some few spots there 
were balls of iron stone, and concretions of ochre formed in the clay ; 
ill others there was a considerable deposit of manganese ore dispersed 
through the sand and porous portions of the loam ; in the latter were 
also concrattric balls of the same ore inclosed within each other after 
the manner of the ochreous aetites *. 

It was in one of these oblique apertures in the present fiice of the 
rock at Oreston, and at about forty feet above the bottom of the 
quarry, that the congeries of bones, skulls, horns, and teeth I am now 
about to speak of, was discovered. Mr. Whitby had collected 
fifteen large maund baskets full of them before our arrival ; these 
have been sent to the College of Surgeons, and distributed to 
various public collections. In the upper parts of the cavity from 

* A small quantity of manganese is found disposed in a similar maimer in some 
parts of the sediment in the cave at Kirkdale; and I have often found this ore incrusting 
the pebbles and sand in subordinate beds of a large mass of mixed diluvial gravel, e. g. 
in Lord Barrington's gravel pit at Sedgefield, in the county of Durham; and in some 
gravel pits near Liege. It does not pervade the entire mass, but is usually limited to 
beds of a few inches in thickness, and seldom s]preads in these beyond a few feet in 
breadth. The source from which it has been derived in situations of this kind is by 
no means obvious; it is decidedly of later origin than the gravel itself, and seems 
analogous to the incrustations of iron and carbonate of liihe, which are often disposed 
in a similar manner around the component materials of common sUrfiuie gravel, ceittehting 
it into a solid breccia, (e. g. in the gra^I pits immediately on thi^eilsf and north of Ok« 
ferd^r It 8eem» to have been deposited from wlite^ ii^famedlitt^Ugh^ the gravel and 
sand' which ne* 1liu» incrutted by it 



72 BONES AT ORESTON. 

which they were taken we saw appearances of as many more still mi^ 
disturbed, and forming a mass which entirely blocked it up to an 
extent which we could not then ascertain ; those already extracted had 
been discovered in a hollow, which apparently formed the lowest port 
of a cavernous aperture descending obliquely downwards. Ascend- 
ing this aperture from its lowest point, we pursued it upwards maiiy 
feet through the solid rock till it became narrow, and was entirely ob- 
structed by a mass of bones, fi'agments of limestone, and mud ; these 
have probably been since removed, and I must refer to Mr. Whidby's 
account, in the Transactions of the Royal Society for 182S, Part I., 
for further particulars as to the manner in which he has traced its 
connexions. upwards through other caverns towards the surfece*. 

* In the course of the summer of 1822, Joseph Cottle, Esq. of Bristol, has made a 
large collection of bones from this same cave during a visit to Plymouth, and has added 
the tiger to the list of animals before discovered in it. He has fiivouied me with 
the following list of the remains in his possession, and is about to publish a description 
of them. 

18 jaws of horse. 
Sjaws of ox. 
2 jaws of hyaena. 
2 jaws of deer. 
5 jaws of wolf. 
Single teeth, 188 of horse. 

26 of ox. 
9 of hyaena. 
2 tusks of tiger: one 3^ inches. long, the other 3^; one from the 

upper, the other from the lower jaw. 
5 teeth of wolf. 
85 of deer. 

50 of ox or deer: not ascertained. 
Bones : 800 large and small, chiefly of the horse ; none of them are gnawed^ iWDjr 
are quite perfect, and the majority of them slightly broken. 

Osseous breccia: 88 specimens, containing teeth and bones cemented by stalagndte. 
From this list it appears that the bones of horse greatly predaminate in the coUeG- 



BONES AT OEESTON. 78 

The bones appeared to us to have been washed down from above 
at the same time with the mud and fragments of limestone, through 
which they are dispersed, and to have been lodged wherever there 
was a ledge or cavity sufficiently capacious to receive them, or a strait 
sufficiently narrow to be completely obstructed by them ; they were 
entirely without order, and not in entire skeletons ; occasionally frac- 
tured, but not rolled ; apparently drifted^ but to a short distance firom 
the spot in which the animals died ; they seem to agree in all their 
circumstances with the osseous breccia of Gibraltar, excepting the 
accident of their being less firmly cemented by stalagmitic infiltra^ 
tions through their earthy matrix, and consequently being more de- 
cayed ; they do not appear, like those at Eirkdale, to bear marks of 
having been gnawed or fractured by the teeth of hyasnas, nor is there 
any reason to believe them to have been introduced by the agency 
of these animals. 

The only marks I have seen on them were those pointed out to 
me by Mr. Clift, of nibbling by the incisor and canine teeth of an 
jEmimal of the size of a weasel, showing distinctly the different effect 
of each individual tooth on the ulna of a wolf, and the tibia of a horse ; 
and a few pits or circular cavities produced by partial decomposition 
on one surface only of the tibia of an ox, exactly resembling those 
which occur on many of the bones from the cave at Kirkdale. 

These pits must have been formed before the bone was imbedded 

tion made by Mr. Cottle : in that sent to the College of Surgeons those of the ox were 

much Inore numerous, being nearly equal to those of the horse ; but whatever be the 

disproportion of their numbers, the bones and teeth of all the animals are found con- 

fiisedly mixed together in irregular heaps, and not in entire skeletons, nor arranged in 

different parts of the cavern according to the difference of their species. 

L. 



74 BONES AT ORESTON. 

in mud in the lowest recesses of the cave^ and probably "vdiilst it lay 
esqposed in some upper cavity of the rock. The weasels' teeth aho 
must have made their impressions on the bones of the wolf and 
horse before they were buried in diluvial mud, and probably idulst 
these dead animals lay in the same situation with the tibia of the ox. 

The bones when half dry, on being thrown out of a basket on the 
floor, had the smell of a charnel-house, or newly opened grave. On 
examining the spot where they lay yet undisturbed in the mud of 
the cave, we found some of them decomposedt and crumbling under 
the touch into a blackish powder, and all extremely tender and fran- 
gible, and of a dark brown colour wh^st wet ; but on drying th^ 
acquired a greater degree of firmness and a whiter colour. They 
retain less of their animal gelatin than the bones at Eirkdale^ and 
when dry they ring if a blow be given to them, and are absorbent to 
the tongue. On some of them there are marks of extensive disease. 

Mr. Clift has discovered in two of these bones from Oreston (the 
metatarsus and metacarpus of an ox) extensive enlargement by 
ossific inflammation, arising probably firom a kick or blow ; and also 
cavities and swellings produced by abscesses in both sides of the under 
jaw of a wolf. Professor Soemmering also has in his collection the 
head of an hycena firom the cave of Gailenreuth, firom which part of the 
nose, with the canine and incisor teeth, had been entirely torn away, 
and the elevated ridge formed by the parietal crest and fiontal 
suture dreadfiilly lacerated by the fangs of a bear, or tiger, or perhaps 
another hysena and the individual had survived imtil the injuries had 
been considerably, and, as &r as was possible, repaired. A drawiiig 
of this head is inven in the 4th vol. of the ^ edition of Cuvier^s 



BONES AT OBESTON. 75 

Animaux Fossiles, PL XXX. M. Esper, tdso, in his Beptesentations 
of bonra firom Gail^oreuth (Plate XIV.), gives a cbrawing of the thigh 
bone of a bear, which had been broken and re-united, having at the 
points of junction marks of extensive exostosis. 

It appears from a description accompanied by beautiful diswings 
of many of the Oreston bones by Mr. Clift, published m the PhiL 
Trans, for 18S3, Part I. that those sent to the College of Surgeons 
belong to the six following genera of animals, viz. Hyaena, Wolf, Fox, 
Horse, Ox, and Deer ; to these must be added the tusks of Tiger, 
dtfloovered by Mr. Cottle. Mr. Clift has ascertained the following 
number of individuals. 

Hyaenas, five or six, of the same extinct species as those at Kirk- 
dale ; three of them were young, and in the act of changing their 
teeth. 

Wolves, five. Mr. Clift can find no difference between these fossil 
teeth and bones and those of existing species*. 

Fox, two tusks, much decayed, and absorbent to the tongue. 

Horses, about twelve, of different ages and sizes, as if firom more 
than one species. 

Oxen, about twelve, of difierent species, some having very short 
and straight horns ; but not referable to young animals. 

I)eer, two or three, of a small species. 

No traces of bear or rhinoceros have yet been noticed in this last 
discovered cavern, though they occurred in the former cavities at no 
great distance ; but this circumstance is an accident likely to arise 

^ M. Cuvier also can find no difference between the bones and teeth of fossil wolves 
and foxes, which he has examined, and those of recent ones. 

l2 



76 THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF 

firom the irregular manner in which the remains are now dispersed^ 
and implies no difference in the time or circumstances under>which 
they were introduced. > j:_ 

It remains only to consider what this time and what the dreom- 
stances were. I have abeady stated, that there is no evidence like 
that at Eirkdale, to show the animal remains atOreston to hare been 
collected by the hyaenas ; no disproportion in the number of the 
teeth to that of the bones ; no destruction of the condyles and softer 
p^rts, and abundance in excess of fragments of the harder portion ; 
no splinters of the marrow bones ; no friction or polish on the convex 
surfaces only of the curved bones ; no marks of large teeth ; no album 
grsBcum ; and no dispersion of bones along the horizontal sur&ce 
of a habitable den : but, on the contrary, a deep hole nearly perpen- 
dicular, and bones quite perfect, lodged in irregular heaps in the 
lowest pits, and in cavities along the lateral enlarg^nents of this hole^ 
and mixed with mud, pebbles, and fragments of limestone in pre- 
cisely the same manner as I shall hereafter show them to be lodged 
and mixed in the caves and fissures of Germany and Gibraltar ; and 
as they would have been, supposing they were drifted to their piesrat 
place by the dUuvian viraters from some lodgment which they had 
before obtained in the upper regions of these extensive and connected 
cavities. That they are of antediluvian origin is evident from the 
presence of the extinct hyaena, tiger, and rhinoceros ; but there still 
]remains a difficulty in ascertaining what was the pkMsefrom which 
they were so drifted ; 1. Are they the bones of animals that were 
drowned, and their bodies drifted in entire by the waters whidh in- 
troduced the mud and pebbles ? Or, 2, had they lain some time dead 



THE BONES AT ORESTON. 77 

on the antediluvian sur&ce of the earth, till they were washed in at 
the deluge ? Or, 8, were they derived from the animals that had 
fidlen into the open antediluvian fissures, and there perishing, re- 
mained as entire skdetons in the spots on which they died, till they 
were drifted on further by the diluvian waters into the lowest recesses 
and under-vaultings with which these fissures had communication, 
and there mixed up, in irregular heaps, with mud, pebbles, and 
ttigular fragments of limestone, all falling down together with them 
to the places of their present interment, and producing in this 
short transit that quantity of fracture to which they have been sub- 
mitted ? 

1. On the first of these hypotheses, had they been drowned, and 
the carcases drifted in by the diluvian waters, we should have found 
the skeletons more entire, and the bones less broken and less con- 
fusedly mixed together than they are ; and we should neither have 
had the marks of nibbling by the weasels' teeth on the bones of the 
wolf and horse, nor the hollow pits arising from partial decay on one 
surfoee only of the tibia of the ox ; for neither of these effects could 
have been produced on bones surrounded with a bed of mud. 

S. To the second hypothesis, that they had lain as dead bones on 
die antediluvian sur&ce till they were drifted from thence into the 
fissures, I would reply, that in a land inhabited as this was by wolves 
takd hyaenas, it is not likely that any carcases would have lain long 
mk the surface without at least the softer portions of the bones being 
eaten off by the hysenas, and thus we should have found them lacerated 
ratl^r than perfect, in the place to which they have siiice been drifted ; 



78 THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF 

they might also in this case have been e:8gpected to be more or less 
rolled, and to have lost their angles by-friction, which does not appear 
to be the fact Another objection also arises from this circumstance, 
that the bones of dead animals exposed on the surface of the earthy 
without any protection of soil or gravel, are soon destroyed by minute 
insects and continual atmospheric changes ; and were it not so, the 
world would by this time have been spread over most abundantly 
with the bones of the myriads of animals that have died on its sur&ce^ 
and received no burial ever since the period of the last retreat of the 
diluvial waters. 

3. The third hypothesis is that which I propose as most probable^ 
viz. that the animals had Mien during the antediluvian period into 
the open fissures, and there perishing, had remained undisturbed in 
the spot on which they died, till drifted forwards by the diluvian 
waters to their present place in the lowest vaultings with which these 
fissures had communication. This explanation is supported by the 
strong fact, that animals at this day do fall continually into the few 
fissures that are still open, and that carnivorous as well as grami- 
nivorous animals lie in nearly entire skeletons in the open fissure at 
Buncombe Park, each in the spot on which it actually perished, upon 
the different ledges and landing places that occur in the course of its 
descent, and from which, if a second deluge were admitted to this 
fissure, it could only drift them downwards, and with them the loose 
angular fragments amidst which they now lie, to the lowest chambers 
in which the bottom of this fissure terminates. The teeth marks of 
the weasel, and the pitted surface of the tibia, will on this hypothesis 



A. 



THE BONES AT ORESTON.. 79 

have been eflfects produced on the bones as they lay dead within the 
fissures (for a weasel might find access by minute crevices to the in^ 
terior of such fissures), and the wolves and hyaenas may have either 
fallen, like the horses, oxen, and deer, by accident into these natural 
pit&Us, or have been tempted to the fiital experiment of leaping into 
them to eat the carcases of the other animals, whilst they lay yet rnir 
decayed ^thin the fissures. The proportion of individuals ooUected 
at Qreston (the graminivorous being very much in excess beyond the 
carnivorous) is, as &r as it goes, consistent with this hypothesis; and if 
this solution appears fimcifiil, it is one that need not be urged, for by 
the same accident that dogs at this day fall into the open fissure at 
Buncombe Park, no less than sheep and deer, might the wolves and 
the hyaenas also of the antediluvian world have fallen, as well as the 
horses and oxen, into the chasms which then in countless numbers 
crossed their paths, whenever they ventured on the perilous regions 
of the hollow and fissile limestone ; and possibly some of them, whilst 
in the very act of pursuing their prey, may have dashed (like our less 
ferocious dogs in pursuit of game) into the chasms, which became the 
common grave of themselves and of the victim they were too eager to 
devour. And however new and unheard-of the existence of such 
fissures may be to those who have never visited or lived in a country 
composed of compact limestone, it is matter of painfiil notoriety to 
the farmers in Derbyshire, that their cattle are often lost by fidling 
into the still open fissures that traverse the districts of the Peak ; and 
it is no less matter of fitct, that similar accidents are avoided in the 
mountain limestone countries of Monmouth and Glamorganshire only 



80 BONES IN GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

by walls careftQly erected round all the open chasms, with which ther^ 
also the same rocks are intersected *. 

In speaking of the bones at Oreston in my former paper On Eirkr 
dale, I had expressed a decided opinion that the cavetns in which they 
occur must have had some communication with the sur&ce throu^ 
which the bones may have been introduced ; and as Mr. Whidby has 
since found reason to adopt the same opinion in his further account of 
this third discovery to the Royal Society, accompanied by plans and 
sections of the caves, and Mr. Clifl has laid before the same society an 
anatomical description of the bones, with beautifiil drawings, all of 
which will in the Phil. Trans, for 1823, 1 shall conclude this part 
of my subject with referring my readers to these memoirs for further 
particulars. 



6.— CAVE OF CRAWLEY ROCKS, NEAR SWANSEA. 

' » ■ ■ ■ . 

The sixth deposit of bones which has come to my knowledge was 
in the parish of Nicholaston, on the coast of Glamorganshire, at a 
spot called Crawley Eocks, in Oxwich Bay, about twelve miles S.W, 
of Swansea ; it was discovered in the year 179^, in a quarry of lime- 
stone, on the property of T. M. Talbot, Esq. of Penrice Castle^ and 
no account of it has, I believe, been ever published ; some of the bones 

* In Sir John NichoFs park at Merthyr Mawr there are many such apertures dius 
walled round; and in mining countries we know that animals are perpetually being lost 
by falling into old shafts that are not sufficiently fenced round to keep them off. 



CAVE IN CRAWLEY ROCKS. 81 

howeyer are preserved in the callectioQ of Miss Talbot, at Fenrioe; 
they are as follows : 

Elephant. ; Three portions of large molar teeth. 

Rhinoceros Right and left ossa humeri 

One atlas bone. 

Two molar teeth of upper jaw. 

Qx • First phalangal bone of left fore foot. 

l: Stag Lower extremity of the horn. 

i - Three molar teeth. 

One first phalangal bone, right leg. 

Hyaena Two canine teeth, much worn. 

These bones were found in a cavity of mountain limestone, which 
was accidentally intersected, like the cave at Kirkdale, in working a 
quarry : they have a slight ochreous incrustation, and a little earthy 
matter adhering to them ; but are not in the least degree rolled ; and 
the condyles of the two humeri of the rhinoceros, belonging to dif- 
ferent individuals, have in each case been entirely broken ofi. There 
is also in the collection of J. Lucas, Esq. at Southall, in this neigh- 
bourhood, the entire femur of a rhinoceros, said to have been found 
many years ago in a cavern of limestone at Port Inon, together with 
teeth, and a ^gantic skull, which was sent over to Appledore, and has 
not been heard of since. As there is a similar tradition of a large 
skull having been found at Crawley Rocks, together with the bones 
now at Fenrice, it is probable that this head, and possibly the femur 
cf the rhinoceros also, were found all together in the cave at Crawley, 
which has now been entirely cut away. 



M 



\ 



88 CAVE OP PA^inLAND, 



7..-CAVB OF FA.VILAND. 

The seventh and last case that has oocuned m this country is that 
of another discovery recently made on tihie coast of Glamorganshirei 
fifteen milea west of Swanses^ hetH^een Oxwich Bay and the Worms 
Head, on the property of C M« Talbot, Esq. It consists of two large 
caves feeing the sea, in the fitmt of a lofty cliff of limestone, whidi 
rises more than 100 fiset perpendiculacfy above the mouth of the 
caves, and below them slopes at an angle of about 40^ to ihe water's 
edgey pMsanting a bluff and ragged shore to the WBire% which are 
very< violent along this north coast of the estuary of tibe Sevens 
These caves are altogether invisible firom the land sid^ saA ace acces* 
siUe only at low watery except by dangerous dimbing akmg the face 
cisL neaxfy" precipitouft difl^ composed entirely of oompadi nwuntam 
limestone^ which dips nortli at an an^ of about 45^.^ One: of them 
only (called Goats Hdb) had been; noticed when: I lonaved there^ 
ffnd I shall desKribe it first, before I proceed to i^eak of the other. 
Its. existence had been long known, to the fiomers^ of ther adjacent 
hmds^ as w^ as the feet of ^containing lazge bones, but it had been 
tto fiurther attended to till last sammer^ when it was eiqAored by tibe 
sinrgeos and curate of tibe nearest village, Fort Inon, who disooveced 
hi it two^molar teeth of elephant, and a portion of a large curved tud^ 
wMch latter they buried again in the earth, where it remained tiU it 
was extracted a second time, on a furth^ examination of the cove in 
the and of December last by L. W. Dillwyn, Esq. and Miss Talbot, and 



IN THE SEA CLIEFS. 88 

removied to Penrice Castle, toge&er with a iargd pert of the akuU io 
wfaidi it had bdbngedt and ser^ral baskets &dl of other teeth and 
bones. On the news of this furtiber diaoovery being communicated 
tom^ i limit immediately dO-om Derbydiire to Wales, and found the 
position of the cave to be such as I have above described ; and its 
floor at the mimtfa to be &om 80 to 40 fi^ above high-water mark, 
so that the waves of the highest storms occasionally dash into it, and 
have produced three or finir deep eock basins in its very threshold, 
by the rolling on their axis of large stones, which still lie at the bot- 
tom of these basins (see Plate XXI. h Hr) ; around ^eir edge, and 
in the outer part of the eave itself, are strewed a considerable number 
of sea pebbles, resting on the native limestone rock. The floor of 
the cave ascends rapidly from its mouth inwards to the fiirthest ex- 
tremity (see Plate XXI. and description), no that the pebbles have 
not been drifted in beyond twenty feet, or about one-third of its 
whole length; in the remaining two-thirds no disturbance by the 
waters of the present sea appears ever to have taken place^ and within 
this point at which the pebbles cease, the floor is covered with anuiss 
<tf diluvialloam of a reddish yellow colour, abundantly mixed with 
angular fragments of limestone and broken calcareous spar, and inter- 
spersed with recent sea-shells, and with teetibi and bones of the fol- 
lowing animals, viz. elephant, rhinoceros, bear, hysena, wol^ fox^ horse, 
ox, deer of two or three species, water-rats, sheep, birds, and man. 
I found also fragments of charcoal, and a small flint, the edges of 
which had been chipped off, as if by striking a light I subjoin a list 
of the most remarkable of the animal remains, most of which are pre- 
served in the collection at Penrice Castle, and the Museum at Oxford. 

M 2 



84 ANIMALS AT FAVILAND. 

« 

Elephant Head broken into numerous fragments, the sockets tif 

the tusks being nearly entire, and six inches in 
diameter, and very long. 
One large portion of tusk, nearly two feet long, and five 
indies and a half in diameter. 

One large portion of diseased tusk, and many^ very small 
fragments of decayed ivory. 

Two molar teeth entire, fragments of two others. 

Fart of the epiphysis of the humerus. 

Large fragments of the ribs. 

Splinters of large cylindrical bones of the legs. 
Rhinoceros. ...A tooth resembling the incisor of the upper jaw. 

One fragment of upper molar tooth. 

One large bone of the carpus. 

Two phalangal bones of tlie toa 

Horse Many teeth and fragments of bones. 

Hog.... One upper incisor, apparently modern. 

Bear Many molar teeth, two krge canine ditto. 

One fragment of lower jaw, and the anterior portion or 
chin part of two other lower jaws firmly anchelosed^ 
and exhibiting the sockets of the mcisor teeth and 
of both tusks ; the latter are more than three inches 
deep^ and equal in size to the largest from the caves 
of Germany. 

One humerus, of the same large size^ nearly entire* 

Many vertebrae^ equally large. 

Two ossa calcis, and many large bones c^ the meta- 
carpus and metatarsus. 



ANIMALS AT PAVILAND. 85 

Hyaena Lower extremity <tf the left humerus. 

Fox Lower extremity of the femur. 

Wolf. One lower jaw. 

One OS calds. 

Several metacarpal bones. 
Ox...... Many teeth. 

Two lumbar vertebrse. 

One femur, and many entire bones of the foot, and 
fragments of larger bonesi 
Deer One skull, large as the red deer, but of a different species. 

Fragments of various homs^ some small, others a little 
palmated, one approaching to that of the roe. 

Many teeth, and fragments of bones. 

Bat One skeleton, nearly entire, of a small water-rat, or 

large field-mouse, probably postdiluvian. 

3irds Single bones of small birds, all recent. 

Man Portion of a female skeleton, clearly postdiluvian. 

Fragments of many recent bones of ox and sheep^ ap- 
parently the remains of human food. 
The entire mass throu^ which the bones are dispersed appears 
to have been disturbed by ancient diggings, and its antediluvian re- 
m^s thereby to have become mixed with recent bones and shells ; 
the latter of which Mr. Dillwyn has examined, and refers to the fol- 
lowing species : buccinum undatum, turbo littoreus, patella vulgata, 
trochufl crassus, nerita Uttoralis ; these are all common on the adjacent 
shore, and the animals that inhabit them are all eatable. That portion 
Df the diluvial mass which lies on the east side of the cave (see Plate 



86 RECENT MARINE SHELLS WITH 

XXI. F.) adheres together in a loose hieccia, and has been less disr 
turbed than the rest, which it overhangs with a dijBT about .five jfeot 
high^ and extending inwards from f to the interior e:Ktremity of the 
cave B, where it enters into and covers the floor of the small hole that 
terminates the cave. At the point b the recent, shells and bones of 
birds are most abundant, and the earthy mass containing them is 
cemented to a firm breccia by stalagmite ; and this is almost the onfy 
point within the cave at whidi any stalagmite or stalactite occurs. 
The two elephants' teeth were found in the small cliff f, at a distance 
from the head and tusk, which lay dose together in the loose earth £, 
at the spot represented in the drawing. The anterior part of the skull^ 
and the sockets of both the tu£^ were found nearly entire, but have 
been much broken by removal They were but slightly covered 
with earth, and very tender ; the portion of tusk also, being about 
two feet long, is so mudi decayed that the whole of its interior has 
crumbled to small angular fr^^ents, so soft as to be cut by the nft il^ 
whilst the outer laminae alone remain entire, and in the form of a 
hollow shell, which is preserved at Fenrice ; so also are the fragments 
that composed great part of the entire skull, and were broken 
in extracting them; and another portion of ivory, in which h9» 
been formed an irregular cavity, about two inches in diameter^ 
similar to those produced by ossific inflammation in recent ivory by 
gun-shot wounds, and encircled with concentric laminae of bony 
matter, placed obliquely to the grain of the ivory : it is probably <be 
eflfect of a blow or puncture received whilst this part of the tmk 
was yet in its pulpy state, and within the socket No large baoes 
of the skeleton have as yet been discovered entire; they aeem to 



ANCIENT AND MODERN BONES. 87 

have been destroyed and broken to pieces by repeated dig^gi* 
The other ancient bones also have been mudi broken^ and appear 
generally in the state of fragments dispersed irregularly through the 
earthy matrix^ together with ancient teeth, and fragments of horns, 
and with the modem bones and recent shells above enumerated. 
None of these remains have any marks of having been gnawed or 
rolled, nor have the fragments of limestone, and of calcareous spar 
that occur with them, lost much of their angles. Among the horns 
I noticed the base of two that are separate from the skull^ and ap- 
pear to have been cast off by necrosis ; and among the bones was the 
entire skull of a deer, from which the horns had been brok^A off by 
violence. In the centre of the cave, and about two feet deep, I found 
under and amongst the broken bones of elephant, bear, and other 
extinct animals^ a portion of the scapula apparently of a she^ which 
Ind been smoothly cut across as if by a butcher's saw ; and, firom its 
state of preservation, was decidedly not antediluvian. This mixture 
of ancient and comparatively modem bones must have arisen from 
repeated diggings in the bottom of the cave. 

In another part (see Plate XXL) I discovered beneath a shalhzw 
oovering of six inches of earth nearly the entire left side of a human 
fiknale skeleton. The skull and vertebras, and extremities of tiie 
ri^t side were wanting; the remaining parts lay extended in the 
Moid position of burial, and in their natural order of contact, and 
consbted of the humerus, radius, and ulna of the left arm, the hand 
being wanting ; the left leg and foot entire to the extremity of the 
toes, part of the right foot, the pelvis, and many ribs; in the middle 
of die bones of the ancle was a raiall quantity of yellow wax-like sub- 



88 HUMAN FEMALE SKELETON. 

stance resembling adipocere. All these bones appeared not to hayei 
been disturbed by the previous operations (whatever they were) that 
had removed the other parts of the skeleton. They were all of them 
stained superficially with a dark brick-red colour, and enveloped by a 
coating of a kind of ruddle, composed of red micaceous oxyde of iron^ 
which stained the earth, and in some parts extended itself to the 
distance of about half an inch around the surface of the bones. The 
body must have been entirely surrounded or covered over at the 
time of its interment with this red substance. Close to that part of 
the thigh bone where the pocket is usually worn, I found laid together, 
and surrounded also by ruddle, about two handsfull of small shells 
of the nerita littoralis in a state of great decay, and falling to 
dust on the shghtest pressure. At another part of the skeleton, via. 
in contact with the ribs, I found forty or fifty fragments of small 
ivory rods nearly cylindrical, and varymg m diameter from a quarter 
to three quarters of an inch^ and from one to four inches in length. 
Their external surface was smooth in a few which were least de^ 
cayed ; but the greater number had undergone the same degree of 
decomposition with the large fragments of tusk before mentioned ; 
most of them were also split transversely by recent fi'acture in digging 
them out, so that there are no means of knowing what was their 
original length, as I found none in which both extremities were un-^ 
broken ; many of them also are split longitudinally by the separation, 
of their laminae, which are evidently the laminae of the large tusk, 
from a portion of which they have been made. The surfaces exposed 
by this spUtting, as well as the outer circumference where it was 
smooth, were covered with small clusters of minute and extremely 



RODS AKD Amos OF iVOltT. SKEWER OF BONE. 89 

ddkate dendrites*; so also was the eircumfefenoe of some small £rag^ 
ments of rings made of the same ivoiy, and fomid with the rods, 
beihg nearly of the size and shape of segments of a small teacup 
handle ; the rings w;hen complete were probably four or five inches 
in diameter. Both rods and rings, as well as the nerite shells, were 
stained supeifficiaUy with red, and lay in the same rod substance that 
enveloped the bones; they had evidently been buried at the same 
tiiti6 with the woman. In another place were found three fragments 
of the same ivory, which had been cut into unmeaning forms by a 
rough edged instrument^ probably a coarse knife, the marks of which 
romain on all their surfaces. One of these fragments is nearly of the 
shape and size of a human tongue, and its sur&ce is smooth as if it 
had been applied to some use in which it became polished ; its sur^ 
face also is covered with dendrites like that of the rods : thero was 
found also a rude instrument, resembling a short skewer or chop- 
stick, and made of the metacarpal bone of a wolf, sharp and flattened 
to an edge at one end, and terminated at the other by the naturd 
rounded condyle of the bone, which the person who cut it had piXK 
bably extracted, as well as the ivory tusk, from the diluvial detritus 
within the cave. No metallic instruments have as yet been dis- 
covered amongst these remains, which, though clearly not coeval 
with the antediluvian bones of the extinct species, appear to have 
lain there many centuries. 

The charcoal and fr^ments of recent bone that aro apparently 
thexemains of hiunan food, render it probable that this exposed and 

soUtasy cave has at some time or other been the scene of human hor 

•■,•.* • . • 

^ A superficial stain of oxyde of iron, assuming the form of branches of trees, or 
extremely delicate moss ; but almost invisibly minute. 

N 



90 BRCriSit.CAMP GIXrrBSiBnJL ABOVE. 

biUk1^09,i|f Mna.other :pissaiu^>a1^1fla8t <to the woman. wiifiw bonabl 
hftye b^en d^fi^lHogt . The ivoiy iod» and ringii,aiid tongofeshapod 
fiagmeatijare certainly made fiiQin part of;the antediluyiaa-taaks tibxt 
lay in, the .same. eave; and as they must haveibeen cut to their pi»> 
sexM^ shape at a time when the ivoiy was hard, and not crumbling to 
pieces as it is at present on the sh^test touch, , we may , from this 
Gircumstance assiuae to them a^ery high antiquit;|i^ which is furtl^ 
confirmed by the decayed state of the shells thatjay jui contact with 
the thigh bone, and, like the rods and rings, must have been buried 
with the woman. The wolTs toe bone also was probably reduced to 
its present form, and used by her as a pin or skewer, the immediate 
neighbourhood being wholly destitute of wood. 

The circumstance of the remains of a British camp existing on 
the hill immediately above this cave, seems to throw much light on 
the character and date of the woman under consideration ; and what- 
e¥» may have been her occupation, the vicinity of a camp would 
aSBoitd a motive for residence^ as well as the means of subsistence, in 
what is now so exposed and uninviting a solitude. The firagments 
of diarcoal, and recent bones of oxen, sheep, and pigs, are probably 
the femuns of culinary operations ; the larger shells may have been 
collected also for food from the adjacent shor^ and the small nerite 
ahdk either have been kept in the pocket for the beauty of theit 
yellow colour, or have been used, as I am informed by the Bev. 
Henry Enight, of Newton Nottage, they now are in that part of 
Glamorgtaishire^ in some simple species of game. The ivory rods 
also may have either been applicable to some game, as we use chess 
men or pins on a cribbage-board ; or they may be fragments of pinis, 
such as Sir Richard Hoare has found in the barrows of \^ts and 



SIMILAB BEMAINS FOUND IN BARROWS. 91 

iPonetyitogeth^ with large bodkins also of ivory, and ^iiidh were 
probably used to &sten together the coarse^ garments of the andent 
Britons* It is a curious coincidence also, that he has found in a 
baiTOw near Warminster, at Cop Head Hill, the shell of a nerite, and 
some ivory beads^ which were laid by the skeletons of an infant and 
an adult fiamale, apparently its mother *. 

Tfaativoiy rings were at' that time used as armlets, is probable 
Sftlm the circumstance of similar rings having also been found by Sir 
Richard Hoare in these same barrows ; and from a passage in Strabo^ 
lib« 4, which Mr. Knight has pointed out to me, id which, speaking 
of the small taxes which it was possible to levy on the Britons, he 
specifies their imports to be very insignificant, consisting chiefly of 
ivory armlets and necklaces, Ligurian stones, glass vessels, and other 
such like trifles. The custom of burying with their possessors the 
ornaments and chief utensils of the deceased, is evident from the 
remains of this kind discovered every where in the andent barrows ; 
and this may explain the circumstance of our finding with the bones 
of the woman at Faviland the ivory rods, and rings, and nerite cbdlB^ 
which she had probably made use of during life. I am at a loss to 
conjecture what could have been the object of collecting the red 
oxy de of iron that seems to have been thrown over the body when 



* A long and rude shaped pin made of bone, of very high antiquity^ being of the 
size and length of a large woooden skewer, and very similar to the smaller fragments of 
ifovy from Paviland, has recently been found on Foxcomb bUl, near Oxford ; and my 
friend the Rey. J. J. Conybeare has discovered a bone bodkin, nearly of thfe same sise^ 
amcmg the remains of die British or Belgic settlements which he has lately been tracing 
out ivith great success on the flat smnmits called Charmy Down^ Banner Down^ SaBsbiiryj 
and CJaverton Down, in the immediate neighbourhood of Bath. 

n2 



92 DATE OF THE HUMAN SKELETON. 

laid in the grave : it is a substance^ however, which occurs abundaiitly 
in the limestone rocks of the neighbourhood. 

The disturbed state of the diluvial earth all over the bottom of 
the cave, and fractured condition of the ancient bones, may have 
been produced by digging in search of more ivory, or to gratify the 
curiosity which the discovery of such large and numerous remains 
must naturally have excited ; and in the course of these diggings the 
antediluvian bones would become mixed with those of modem ani- 
mals which had been introduced for food. The preservation of so 
large a part of the elephant's tusk may probably have arisen from the 
use to which it was destined, and had been in part appropriated im 
the making of rods and rings. 

From all these circumstances there is reason to conclude, that the 
date of these human bones is coeval with that of the military occu- 
pation of the adjacent summits, and anterior to, or coeval with, the 
Boman invasion of this country. 

The above are the most remarkable phenomena in the interior 
of this cave. It remains only to describe a long cavernous aperture 
that rises like a crooked chimney from its roof to the nearly vertical 
face of the rock above : its form and diameter are throughout irre- 
gular, the latter being about twelve feet where longest, and in its 
narrowest part about three feet ; so that it is impossible the large ele- 
phant, whose bones were found in the cave below, could have been 
drifted down entire through this aperture. It expands and contracts 
irregularly from D, its lower extremity in the roof of the cavern, to K, 
the point atwhich it terminates in the fece of the diff. (See Plate XXI.) 
Along this tortuous ascent are several lateral cavities, L. L. L., the 



RECENT BONES IN AN UPPER VAULT. 93 

bottoms of which a^Rxrd a plaoe of lodgment for a bed of brown earth 

m 

libout a foot thick, and derived apparently firom dust driven ia con- 
tinually by the wind. In this earth I found the bones of various birds, 
of moles, water-rats, mice, and fish, and a few land shells ; all these are 
clearly the remains of modem animals, and their presence in this ahnost 
inaccessible spot can only be explained by referring the bones of birds, 
moles, rats, and mice, to the agency of hawks, and the fish-bones to 
that of sea-gulls. The land shells are such as live at present on the 
rock without, and may easily have fallen in. Had there been any 
stalagmite uniting these bones into a breccia, they would have afforded 
a perfect analogy to the accumulation of modem birds' bones, by the 
agency of hawks, at Gibraltar ; where Major Imrie describes them as 
forming a breccia of modem origin in fissures of the same rock which 
has other cavities filled with a bony breccia of more ancient date, and 
which I shall presently endeavour to show is of the same antediluvian 
origin with the older parts of the bones that occur on the floor of the 
cave at Paviland. 

Whilst exploring this cavern, I was informed by the workmen that 
there was another of the same kind about a hundred yards fiirther to 
the west ; and proceeding to examine it, I found it to be very similar 
to the first, in size, form, and position, and closed on every side with 
solid rock; excepting the mouth, which is large and open to the sea ; 
its body contracts gradually towards the inner extremity, and upwards 
also towards the roof, where it terminates in a vein, that is still filled 
with calcareous spar : the cave itself, in fact, seems to be merely an 
enlargement of this vein. There is also a similar,^ but longer and 
more narrow, aperture immediately on the east of Goats Hole, the 



94 TWO OTHER. CAVES ADJOINING GOATS HOLE. 

bottom of whichy being on the level of the sea, is almost peipetually 



under water. This east cave also is seen to terminate upwards in a 
vein of calcareous spar. The floor of the west cave is at its mouth 
about thirty feet above the sea, and ijdore horiacmtal than that of 
Goats Hole, and being throughout within reach of the highest storm 
waves^ is strewed over entirely, to the depth of more than a foot, with 
a bed of small sea pebbles. Digging through these^ I found beneath 
them a bed of the same argillaceous loam and fragments of limestone 
as in the Croats Hole, and a still more abundant accumulation of 
ammal remains. In a short time I collected two baskets' fiiU of the 
teeth and bones of ox, hors^ deer, and bear; and have reason to 
think the entire floor beneath the pebbles is covered with a con- 
tinuous mass of the same diluvial earth and fragments of stones, in- 
termixed with teeth and bones, and altogether of the same age and 
origin with tlie antediluvian part of those in Goats Hol^ the near 
position of which renders it probable that both these caves are re- 
siduary ofishoots or branches of some larger cavern, that has be^i cut 
away by the denudation which formed the present diffif, and whose 
main trunk is now no more ; and that by means of this main trunk 
they originally had communication with each other, and received at 
the same time the animal remains and diluvial detritus that are com- 
mon to them both. Their relative position is such, that if both were 
prolonged towards the sea they would soon meet, and either become 
confluent, or intersect each other. 

The time and manner in which these two caverns received the 
antediluvian teeth and bones, and the earthy matter through which 
they are dispersed, would not so easily have been ascertained had it 



ORIGIN OF THE ANTEDILUVIAN BONES. 95 

not been in our power to illustrate them by the analogies of other 
cayerns now under consideration. From a comparison of these with 
the internal evidence afforded at Faviland, it seems nearly certain that 
the latter me identical in all the circumstances of their diluvial and 
antediluvial phenomena with those of the former ; and that occurring 
as they do, in the vertical cliffii that flank the submarine valley which 
forms the estuary of the Severn, they are analogous to the caves we 
find in the equally vertical and not less lofty cliffs that flank the in- 
land valleys of the Avon at Clifton, of the Weissent river at Muggen- 
dorf, of the Bode river at Rubeland in the Hartz, and of the Mur at 
Feckaw, near Gratz, in Styria ; all being cliffii produced by diluvial 
denudation, and all containing^ in a nearly vertical precipice, the 
mouths of caves which are but the truncated extremities of other 
and originally more extensive caverns, which descended fi-om the ante- 
diluvian sur&ce, and terminated in the vaults that still remain in 
those portions of the rock which have not been washed away by the 
diluvial waters, from whose action these dlfis have derived their 
origin. By such larger and upper chambers, whose destruction I am 
now assuming (and for the proof of which I must refer to the con- 
cluding part of this work), the animal remains may either have been 
wadied in at the same time with the diluvial loam and fragments of 
stone^ in the midst of which they lie^ or ha ve fallen in and perished 
in the period immediately preceding the deluge, and been sub- 
sequently drifted onwards to their present place in the lowest re- 
cesses with which the upper cavities had communication. The detail 
df the manner in which this latter process may have taken place has 
be^ already pointed out in my description of the caves at Oreston. 



^6 ^ENEBAt CONCLUSION AS TO 

ne&r Plymouth. I haVe as yet fouiid ho evidietioe td ^ow tliHt^tMdfT 
of the caves at Paviland ivere occupied as antediluvian dens. ' ^ ^^ ^^ 

In the flat surface of the fields, a quarts of a mile distant inta3H# 
from the cliff of Paviland, is an open cavern, to whmh it is poesil^e 4iof 
descend only by a ladder, and which, like the open fissure at thifl^' 
combe Park, contains at its bottom, and in the course of its dejscei^' 
the uncovered skeletons of sheep, dogs, fox^ and other modern^ 
animals, that occasionally &11 into it and permh; It is needless to 
repeat the arguments I have founded on facts <if this kind, to show 
the manner in which antediluvian animals may have Mien into the 
then existing cavities of the limestone rocks, and have rappUed tka 
remains we find in the bony breccia of Gibraltar and H^Uiouthy and 
I may here add also of Paviland. - 

The above facts are, I think, sufficient to warrant us in eondudingv 
that in the period we have been speaking of the extinct' 'Species df 
hyasna, tiger, bear, elephant, rhinoceros, and hifqpopcHabiuJa^ no less 
than the wolves, foxes, horses, oxen, deer, and '^other animals which 
are not distinguishable &om existing species, had established 4hera^ 
selves from one extremity of England to the other, from the caves of 
Yorkshire to those of Plymouth and Glamorganshire ; whilst the di-' 
luvial gravel beds of Warwickshire, Oxford, and London, show that 
they were not wanting also in the more central parts of the country ; 
and M. Cuvier has established, on evidence of a similar nature, the 
probability of their having been spread in equal abundance over the 
Continent of Europe. But it by no means foUows, from the certainty 
of the bones having been dragged by beasts of prey into the small* 
cavern at Eirkdale, that those of similar animals must hove^ been 



BONES IN CAVERNS, WHY BARELY DISCOVERED. 97 

intiXMiiioed in all other cases in the same manner ; for as all these 
animals were the antediluvian inhabitants of the countries in 
livliidi the caves occur, it is possible^ that some may have retired 
into them to die^ others have feUen into the fissures by accident 
and there perished, and others have been washed in by the diluvial 
waters. By some one or more of these three latter hypotheses, we 
may explain those cases in which the bones are few in number and 
not gnawed, the caverns large, and the fissures extending upwards to 
the surface ; but where they bear marks of having been lacerated by 
beasts of prey, and where the cavern is small, and the number of 
bones and teeth so great, and so disproportionate to each other as in 
the cave at Kirkdale^ the only adequate explanation is, that they were 
collected by the agency of wild beasts. We shall show hereafter, 
that in the case of the German caves, where the quantity of bones is 
greater than could have been supplied by ten times the number of 
carcases which the caves, if crammed to the full, could ever have 
contained at one time^ they were derived firom bears that lived and 
died in them during successive generations. 

Although it must appear probable from the facts I have now 
advanced, that similar bones abound generally in the caves and 
fissures of our limestone districts, we shall yet cease to wonder that 
their existence has been so long unnoticed, when we consider the 
number of accidental circumstances that must concur to make them 
objects of public attention. 1st, The existence of caverns is an acci- 
dental occurrence in the interior of the rock, of whidi the external 
sur&ce affords no indication, when the mouth is filled with rubbish, 
and overgrown with grass, as it usually is in all places, excepting 



98 CONCURBENGE OF ACCIDENTS NECESSARY. 

eliffi^ and ihe face of stone quairies. ^d. The presence of bonea is 
anothw accident, though probably not an uncommon one in those 
cavities which were accessible to the wild animals, either falling in, 
or entmng spontaneously, or being dragged in by beasts of pr^^ 
in the period immediately preceding the deluge. 3d, A fiirther r^ 
quisite is, the intersection of one of these cavities, in which there 
happen to be bones, by a third accident, viz. the working of a stone 
quarry, by men who happen to haye sufficient curiosity or intelligence 
to notice and speak of what they find, and this to persons who also 
happen to be willing or able to appreciate and give pubheity to the 
discovery. The necessary concurrence of all these cmnplicated con- 
tingencies renders it probable^ that however great may be the number 
of subterraneous caverns, in an inland country, very few of them wiU 
ever be discovered, or if discovered, be duly appreciated. Those I 
have mentioned in Yorkshire, Devoii, Somerset, Derby, and Glamor- 
ganshire were aU laid apen^ with the exception of 4;he ^eaves at Pavi^ 
land, by the aiccidental operations of a quarry or mine. 



BONES IN GERMAN CAVES COEVAL WITH THOSE IN ENGLAND* 99 



CAVES OF GERMANY. 



We may now proceed to consider how far the circumstances of 
the caves we have been examining in England appear consistent with 
thote 43i anal(^ous caverns in other parts of the world. Tlie history of 
tfaediluvian gravel of the Continent, and of the animal remains con- 
tained in it, appears altogether identical with that of those in our own 
country ; and with respect to the bones that occur in caverns, the chief 
difference seems to be^ that on the Continent some of the caves have 
their mouths still <^pen^ and have been inhalnted also in the post^^u- 
vian period by {uiimals of existing species. Thus at Gailenrieuth the 
gFeat extinct bear (Ursus spelseus) occurs, together with the Yoilcshire 
species of extinct hysena, in a cave, the mouth of which has no appear- 
ance of having ever been closed, and which at this moment would, 
probably, have been tenanted by wild beasts, had not the progress of 
human population extirpated them from that part of Germany. 

For the best existing accounts of the cavern at Gailenreuth, which 
I have twice visited in 1816 and 1822, and of which, in Plate XVII. 
I have given a sectional representation, I must refer to Esper's 
^Description des Zoolithes et des Cavemes dans le Margraviat de 
Bareuth," foL 1774, with fourteen plates of the bones of bears and 
hysenas ; and to the work of Rosenmuller, published at Weimar in 
1804, in folio, with engravings of almost all the bones composing the 
skeleton of the extinct bear, the size of which approached neariy to 

o 2 



100 ELEPHANT AND RHINOCEIIOS COEVAL WITH BEAR. 

that of a large horse. M. Goldfiiss also in his Taschenbuch has given 
a general description of all the most important caves that occur in the 
neighbourhood of Muggendorf ; and Leibnitz in his Protogaea, and 
De Luc in voL 4 of his Lettres Physiques et Morales, have givaa 
considerable details as to the interior of the most important caverns 
in the Hartz. 

M. BosenmuUer says he has never seen the remains of the elephant 
and rhinoceros in the same cavern with those of bears ; but that 
he has found the bones of wolves, foxes, horses, mules, oxen, sheep, 
stags, roebucks, badgers, dogs, and men*; and that the number of 
all tiiese is very small in proportion to that of the bears. The bones of 
all kinds occur in scattered fragments; one entire skeleton only of the 
Ursus spelaeus is said to have been found by Bnickmann, in a cave in 
the Carpathians, and to have been sent to Dresden -f-. He adds, that 
the different state of these bones shows that they were intrdduced at 
different periods, and that those of all the animals last:enumerated, 
including man, are in much higher preservation than those of the 
bears and hyaenas. 

Thus it appears that the bones which are in most perfect {Hfe- 
servation, and belong to existing species, have been introduced during 
the post-diluvian period ; whilst the extinct bears and hyamas aire 
referable to the antedUuvian state of the earth. In corroboration' of 

* Mr. Esper has found in the cave of Gailenreuth many fragments of sepulchral 
urns, which from their form were probably made at least 800 years ago : they were of four 
kinds, and some of them must have been two feet in diameter, others much smaUer. 

t Being at Dresden myself in 1822, I ascertained that no such skeleton exists 
at present in the royal collection in that city, although there are magnificent specimens 
in it of heads and single bones of the fossil bears and fossil elephants. 



" 



DISPOSITION ON THE BONES IN GERMAN CAVES. >\i01 

• • • • -. 

this, I found in 18£0, in the collection of the Monastery of Ktein^. 
mmster, near Steyer, in Upper Austria, skulls and bones of the Vrem. 
spelaeus in consolidated beds, of diluvial gravel, forming a pudding- 
stone, and dug for building near the monastery. M. Cuvier men- 
tions the occurrence of teeth, supposed to be those of bears, witli the 
remains of elephant, rhinoceros, and hyaena, in the diluvium near 
Ganst^t,^ on the Necker ; and Mr. Pentland has discovered in Italy 
the remains of bears mixed with the bones of hyaena, elephant, and 
rhinoceros in the diluvium of the Val d'Amo. Hence it appears that 
these bears lived with the elephant and rhinoceros in the period im- 
mediately preceding the formation of the diluvium ; and the same 
thing has been already shown of the extinct hyaena in the gravel of 
France, Germany, and England. 

M. BosenmuUer states that in all the caverns he has examined, the 
bones are disposed nearly after the same manner; sometimes scattered 
separately, and sometimes accumulated in beds and heaps of many 
feet in thickness ; they are found every where, from the entrance to 
the deepest and most secret recesses ; never in entire skeletons, but 
angle bones mixed confusedly from all parts of the body, and animals 
of all ages. The skulls are generally in the lowest part of the beds of 
bone, having from their form and weight sunk or roUed downwards, 
through the longer and lighter bones, during tiie agitation to which 
they have been submitted ; the lower jaws are rarely found in contact 
with or near to the upper ones, as would follow from the fact last 
mentioned*. He adds, that they are often buried in a brown 

* At Eirkdale, not one skull, and few, if any, of the larger bones, are found entire ; 
for these had all been broken up by the hyaenas to extract the brains and marrow; and 
in their strong and worn out teeth we see the instruments by which they were thus 



■ • 



• • 






•• •• 









• • 



10* S!rATE OF PRESERVATION OF BONES IN GERMAN CAVES. 



•.V 






;]^Uaceous or marly earth, as in the cases of Gailenreuth, Zahnlochy 
Jid in the Hartz, and tJiat some of this earth, from an analysis by 
'•-'M. Frischmaii, was found to bontain a large proportion of anlinal 

matter. 
•. 

In the cayes of Gailenreutihi and Mockas, a large proportion of 
tlie bones is invested with stalactite. Even entire beds, and heaps 
of them many feet thick, are sometimes cemented together by it, so as 
to form a compact breccia, but they are never found in the substance of 
the rock itself. At Sharzfeld and in the Carpathians, ihey are some- 
times enveloped with agaric mineral (lac lunae) ; they have undergone 
no alteration of form, but the larger bones are generally separated 
from their epiphyses. Their usual colour is yellowish white, but 
brown where they have lain in dark-coloured earth, as at Lichten- 
stein. At Mockas their degree of decay is by far the greatest; 
even the enamel of the teeth is far gone, and the bones are perfectly 
white, having lost all their animal gluten, and acquired the softness 
and spongy appearance, as well as colour, of calcined bones ; still 
their form is perfect, and substance inflexible, and, when struck, they 
ring like metallic bodies falling to the ground. These retain 
simply their phosphate of lime. In other caverns they are usually 
lei98 decayed, but they sometimes exfoliate and crack on exposure to 
air, and the teeth, particularly, are apt to split and.&ll to pieces, as 
are also those at Eirkdale *. 

destroyed. The bears, on the other hand, not beuig exclusively carnivorous, nor having 
teeth fitted for the cracking large bones, have left untouched the osseous remains of 
their own species. 

* It is mentioned as a curious accident, that of five caves in the calcareous hSBis^ 
near Muggendorf, that flank the valley of the Weisent-stream, three on the north chaia 
contain not a fragment of any bones, while two on the south side are full of them. This 



BEARS LIVED AND DIED IN THE CAVES. 108 

M. RosenmuUer is decidedly of opinion with M. Cuvier^ that the 
bears' bones are the remains of animals which lived and died throng 
successive generations in the caves in which we find them; nay, 
even that they were also bom in the same caves ; in proof of which 
he has fomid some bones of a bear, so small, that it must have died 
immediately after its birth, and other bones of individuals that must 
have died in early life^ like the young hyaenas which have been found 
at Eirkdale: and M. Blumenbach expresses precisely the same 
opinion in his first Specimen Archasologise Telluris, p. 14. 

^ Utut interim sit, speluncarum istarum ratione et ossium ursi^ 
nbrum in iisdem situ persuasus sum, ea, neque ut quorundam ferebat 
opinio ab hominibus illic illata, neque quae aliorum sententia fiiit 
a diluvio illuta esse, sed quod et CI. De Luc asserit, ipsos istos specus 
harum ferarum natives quondam recessus et postmodum sepulchretum 
fiiisse/' 

The above description of the cave at Gailenreuth, extracted prin- 
dpaUy firom RosenmuUer, and confirmed by my own observations on the 
spot, may be taken as an example of the general state of the bones in 
the other caves on the Continent, of which it is superfluous here^ say 
any thing more than to subjoin a list of the most important of theni^ 

maj probaUy be exphuned by supposing the mouths of the former to hare been cbsed 
and uiaccessible in the antediluvian period^ and afterwards laid open by denudation* In 
the adjacent valley of the Esback, at the castle of Rabenstein, they occiur in caves on 
both sides of a similar valley of denudation; and even admitting them to have been all 
open and accessible in the period above alluded to, it does not follow that they would all 
have been equally tenanted by bears, whose gregarious habits would lead them to prefer 
S'firequented den to a solitary one; and this predilection, acting through successive 
generations, would accumulate the bones of hundreds or thousands in one cave^ by the 
side of another which may have remained all the while almost wholly unoccupied. 



104 EXTENT OF CAVES ON THE CONTINENT. 



refer to M. Cuvier's Animaux fossiles, for farther details taken 
from the authors by whom these caves have been described. 
The caves alluded to are as follows : 

1. That of Scharzfeld, in Hanover, in the south border of the 
Hartz, described by Leibnitz, De Luc, and Bruckmann. 

Behrens, in his Hercynia Curiosa, speaks of several more in the 
neighbourhood of the Hartz ; from most of these the bones were 
collected during a long course of years, and sold for their imaginai^ 
medicinal virtues, as the bones of the Licome^ or fossil Unicom, of 
which a most absurd drawing is given by Leibnitz in his Protogfta. 

2. That of Bauman, in the county of Blankenberg, in Brunswick, 
on the east border of the Hartz forest, and described by Leibnitz and 
De Luc, 

8. The caves that next attracted attention were those of the Car-- 
pathians, and the bones found in them were at first known by the 
name of dragons' bones, and have been described by Hayne and 
Bruckmann. 

4. But the most richly furnished are the Caves of Franconia, 
described by Esper and Rosenmuller, near the sources of the Mayn, 
between Nurenburg, Bamberg, and Bayreuth, in the vicinity of 
Muggendorf, and known by the names of Gailenreuth, Mockas, 
Zahnloch, Zewig, Babenstein, Schneiderlock, and Kiihloch. 

5. A fifth locality occurs at Gliicksbrun and Leibenstein, near 
Meinungen, on the south-^west border of the Thuringerwald. 

6. And a sixth in Westphalia, at Kluterhoehle and Sundwick, in 
the country of Mark. An account of these is shortly to be published 
by Professor Goldfuss and Mr. A. L. Sack, of Bonn. 



GRAMINIVOROUS ANIMALS RARELY FOUND IN BEARS' CAVES. 105 

M. Cuvier states, that the bones found in these caverns are iden- 
tical over an extent of more than 200 leagues ; that three-fourths of 
the whole belong to two species of bear, both extinct; the ursus 
spela&us and ursus arctoideus^, and two-thirds of the remainder 
to extinct hyaenas -f- ; a very few to a large species of the cat family, 
being neither a lion, tiger, panther, or leopard, but most resembUng 
the jaguar of South America: with them is found a species of 
glutton, and a wolf or dog (not distinguishable from a recent species), 
a fox, and polecat. 

It has been said, that in the caves thus occupied, there occur no 
remains of the elephant, rhinoceros, horse, ox, tapir, or any of the 
ruminantia or rodentia, and in this respect they differ materially 
from that of Yorkshire; but such variation is consistent with the 
different habits of bears and hyaenas, arising from the different 
structure of their teeth and general organization ; from which it 
follows that bears prefer vegetable to animal food ; and, when driven 

* I found in the collection of M. Soemmering^ whom I visited at Frankfort in 182S, 
the head of a third species of bear^ from the cave of Guilenreuth, scarcely distinguish- 
able from the head of a common brown bear from Nortli America^ which he had 
placed by the side of it for comparison. He had the kindness to lend it me^ that I 
might convey it to M. Cuvier at Paris. It was much calcined, and appeared to be of the 
same age with the bones of the extinct species. This head has been since described by 
M. Cuvier in the 4th vol. of his new edition, p. 356^ with engravings of it at plate 27, 
fig. 5 and 6^ of the same volume. Though it approaches so closely to the brown bear, 
there are points in which it differs from it ; and it is on this variation that M. Cuvier rests 
his opinion, that it is a third species of fossil bear, till now unnoticed, and differing firom 
any existing species of that genus. M. Soemmering has called it the Ursus Priscus. 

-)* I am disposed to think that this proportion, as it relates to the hyaenas, is too 
large ; for in visiting all the caverns, as well as several collections of bones taken fix>m 
them, in Germany, I could find very few fragments of teeth or bones of the hyaena, 
amidst hundreds which belonged to bears* 



106 CASES WHEKE THEY HAVE BEEN SO FOUND. 

to the latter, prefer sucking the blood to eating the fleshi whilst 
hyaenas are beyond all other beasts addicted to eating bones. 

From this circumstance it is indeed probable, that in the caves 
inhabited diiefly by bears, the bones of other animals should be 
extremely rare ; they are not, however, wholly wanting. M. DeLuc 
(Lettres, voL iv. p. 588) mentions that the remains of rhinoceros have 
been found in the cave of Scharzfeld, and ascertained by Professor 
HoUman, of Gottingen, to belong to that animal ; and M. Soemmer- 
ing informed me, that he is assured of the fact, having seen the tooth 
of the animal here alluded to in HoUman's collection at Gottingen : 
an account of it is given by Hollman in the Conmient : Gottingens : 
M. Esper also mentions, that bones of elephants have been found by 
M. Frischmann in the cave of Schneiderloch ; and speaking of Zahn- 
loch» his words are, ^ On a trouv6 ici des morceaux des dents d'elqihant» 
ce que les fragmens prouvent incontestablement^ la finrm^ la croiss- 
ance, la structure interne, et en g6n6ral tons les characteres, mettent 
hors de doute la r6alit6 de cette production." And Mr. Sack, of 
Bonn, whom I have before quoted, has found in the cave of Sund'- 
wick, within the last two years, the molar teeth and foot bones of 
the rhinoceros, and the horns, jaws, and other bones of deer, in the 
same cave with the remains of the hyaena, glutton, and two extinct 
species of bear ; they have moreover the marks of teeth on them, and 
their softer parts and condyles have been gnawed o£ Hence it 
follows, that graminivorous animals occur, though rarely, in the caves 
of Germany ; and they may either have been washed in together 
with the diluvial loam and pebbles, or have been dragged in for prey 
by the few hyaenas that occasionally intruded. That the elephant 



ELEPHANT AND RHINOCEROS IN GRAVEL, NEAR THE CAVES. 107 

and rhinoceros lived in the neighbourhood of these caves, in the 
period immediately preceding the formation of the diluvium, is 
probable^ from the abundant occurrence in it of the bones of both 
these animals near the caves of Scharzfeld, in the Hartz, and of 
Altenstein, in Saxe Meinungen, mentioned by Blumenbach. (Ar- 
chasolo^ Telluris, Fart I. p. 13 and 15i) We shall hereafter see 
that carnivorous animals have been found recently in vertical fissures, 
as well as in the caves. 

Professor HoUman, in the Commentar: Gottingens: for 1752, 
T. 11. p. 215, has published an account of many baskets full of these 
large bones, which were discovered 70 years ago, in marl pits 
(i. e. diluvial loam), at the village of Horden, near Herzberg, and 
witliin six miles of the cave of Scharzfeld, and sent to Gottingen ; 
amongst them were portions of five skeletons of rhinoceros ; and I 
have already mentioned another discovery of the bones of elephant, 
rhinoceros, and hyaena, made in 1808, in the same neighbourhood of 
Herzberg^ between Osterode and Dorst ; they were also embedded in 
diluvial miarl, and are described by Professor Blumenbach, in Fart II. 
of his Ardiseologia Telluris. The &cts of the same extinct species of 
hycena, being common to the caves and gravel of France, Germany, 
and England, and of bears occurring in the diluvial gravel of Upper 
Austria, Wirtemberg, and Italy, prove both these animals to have 
been the antediluvian contemporaries of the extinct elephant and 
rhinoceros ; there is, therefore, no anachronism in finding the remains 
of the two latter in dens that were occasionally inhabited by the 
hysenas and bears. 



p2 



108 HARMONY OF GERMAN AND ENGLISH CAVES. 



EVIDENCE OF DILUVIAL ACTION IN THE CAVES AND FISSURES 

OF GERMANY, 



I come now to consider, what is the evidence of diluvial action 
afforded by these caverns, and how far it is analogous to that which 
we find in the caves of our own country ; and having made it my busi- 
ness during the summer of 1822 to visit Germany, for the purpose of 
investigating this important question, I shall now proceed to show by 
a detailed description and drawings of the interior of those among them 
which are most remarkable for containing bones, that there prevails 
throughout them all, in comparing them with each other, as well as 
with those in England, a harmony of circumstances exceeding what 
my fullest expectations would have anticipated ; all tending to esta- 
blish the important conclusion of their having been once and once 
only submitted to the action of a deluge, and that this event happened 
since the period in which they were inhabited by the wild beasts. 
In every cave I examined, I found a similar deposit of mud or sand, 
sometimes with and sometimes witholft an admixture of rolled pebbles 
and angular fragments of rock, and having its surface more or less 
abundantly covered over with a single crust of stalagmite ; and in 
those among them, which had been inhabited as dens before the intro- 
duction of the mud and pebbles, the latter are always sup^nduced 
upon the remains of the wild beasts. 

I had, indeed, in my first paper on Kirkdale, extracted the same 
conclusion from descriptions given by De Luc, Esper, Leibnitz, and 
other writers ; parts of which I have subjoined in the note annexed. 



MUD OR LOAM IN ALL THE GERMAN CAVES. 109 

But they had, many of them, overlooked the fact of the occurrence of 
pebbles in the earthy sediment, and the no less important feature of 
there being but one stalagmitic crust incumbent upon the mud ; and 
they had ventured to offer no reasonable conjecture, as to the time or 
manner of the introduction of these earthy materials, or their re- 
lations to the period in which the caverns were inhabited ; these 
desiderata I am now enabled to supply on my own authority, having 
conducted my observations with a careful regard to a comparison of 
the phenomena of these caverns, with those that occur in England *. 
The caverns themselves are composed of a succession of vaidted 
chambers, communicating with each other by long and narrow pass- 
ages, ascending and descending irregularly through limestone rocks 

* De Luc has described in the following words^ the matrix in which the bones are 
lodged in the cave, at Scharzfeld : ^' Le fait est done simplement, que le sol de ces 
caverns est d^une terre calcaire^ qu'en creusant cette couche molle^ on en tire quantity de 
fragmens d'os, et qu'il s'y trouve aussi des concretions pierreuses qui renferment des os." — 
De Luc, Lettres, Vol. IV. p. 590. 

Leibnitz, also, in his description of this cavern, has the following passage to the same 
purpose, " Limo nigricante vel fusco infectum est solum." — Leibnitz, Protogcea, p. 65. 

Esper thus describes the state of the floor 4iear the entrance of one of the largest 
caverns at Gailenreuth. '^ Dans toij^ la contr^e, le terrain est marneux, mel^ avec du 
limon, et tire sur le jaune, mais ici on trouve une terre moins limoneuse dans une profon- 
deur considerable." — Esper, p, 9- 

Rosenmullcr, speaking generally of the same subject^ says, " Ces fragmens se 
trouvent assez souvent d^pos^s dans une terre brundtre argileuse ou marneuse, comme 
dans les cavemes pr^s de Gailenreuth au Zahnlocb, et dans les cavemes du Hartz." It 
is also stated, that a sediment of mud was found on the sides and floor of a cave, at 
Glucksbrun, in the Thuringerwald, near Meinungen, when it was newly opened in cutting 
a road in 1799 ; and that in other caverna also there is mud. In all the above quotations, 
the fact of the mud is clearly stated, bu( no satisfactory attempt is made to offer any ex* 
planation as to its origin. My own observations in 1 822 enable me now to speak with 
more confidence and precision on this subject than I could do on the authority of 
others. 



110 GENERAL STATE OF THE FLOOR, AND POSITION 

of various ages and formations. The general state of their interior is 
nearly as follows. 1. The first thing we see on entering them is 
an irregular carpet or false floor of stalagmite : this has been much 
broken, and almost wholly destroyed, in those which have been ran- 
sacked for centuries in search of bones ; but in the newly discovered 
caves, and in others, which, containing but few bones, have not been 
broken up, its extent is great, and sometimes totaL 2. Between 
this crust, and the actual floor of native rock, there is usually a bed 
of loam or dfluvial mud, interspersed with rolled pebbles, angular 
stones, and bones, and varying in thickness firom a few inches to 
20 or 30 feet ; there is no alternation of the mud or pebbles, with 
any second or third general crust of stalagmite, nor any thing to 
indicate that the cause which introduced them has operated more 
than once. 3. Beneath this mud, we arrive at the native rock, or 
actual floor of the den, the surface of which is very uneven, and 
sometimes polished, as if by the trampling of its antediluvian in- 
habitants. 

In those caverns, which appear to have been occupied as dens of 
wild beasts, before the introduction o£ the mud, the quantity of 
bones contained in the uppermost chambers is comparatively small ; 
but, as we descend deeper, we find them more and more abun- 
dant, till, at length, in the lower vaultings, or cellarage, they are 
accumulated in enormous heaps, and the vaults themselves become 
filled and entirely choked up with a congeries of bones, pebbles, an- 
gular stones, and mud, piled confusedly together. In many portions 
of this mass the earth is loose, and the bones may easily be extracted; 
in other parts it is consolidated by stalagmitic infiltrations into a hard 



OF THE BONES, MUD, AND PEBBLES, IN CAVES NEAR SPA. 1 1 1 

osseous breccia, resembling that of Gibraltar, and along the shores of 
the Mediterranean, but not so red. It resembles it also in bemg fiiU 
of irregular cells, and of small veins, that are lined internally with a 
thin pellicle of stalagmite. In this breccia of the under vaultings 
artificial holes, or small galleries, have been dug to extract the bones ; 
and of these only it is true that the roof and sides, as well as the 

floor, have bones adhering to them : in the natural chambers there is 

* 

not a single fragment of bone, except upon the floor. 

These general observations apply to the caves and fissures near 
Spa, as well as to those in the Hartz Forest and Franconia, and it 
will be convenient to begin my more detailed account of them with 
those cases that are most simple. 



I. CAVES NEAR SPA. 



In the transition limestone which occurs in the neighbourhood 
of Spa, at Theux, and Verviers, I found numerous vertical fissures 
extending upwards to the sur&ce, and often communicating laterally 
with other fissures and with small caverns. All these fissures were 
filled entirely, and the caverns partially, with a mass of diluvial mud 
and rolled pebbles. Amongst the latter were chalk, flints, and many 
varieties of quartz and slate rocks. The mud in some of the larger 
fissures abounds with ochreous concretions, formed stalagmitically 
since its introduction to its present vertical position ; and like that in 
the cave near Wirksworth, illustrates the history of the ochre I have 
before mentioned, as having been worked in a similar fissure con- 



118 CAVES IN WESTPHALIA. 

taining antediluvian bones of elephants, &c. at Hutton, in the Mendip 
Hills. In the caverns near Theux, I found a crust of stalagmite 
covering the mud; and above this stalagmite some bones of modern 
animals, e. g. chicken, fox, dog, and sheep : the mud beneath the 
stalagmite has not been examined, but I could obtain no int^genoe 
of bones having been as yet discovered in it. In this district there 
are other large caves near Spa and Venders, which I had not time to 
visit, but which deserve examination, with a view to the discovery of 
bones beneath their stalagmitic floor *. 



II. CAVES IN WESTPHALIA. 



I had no opportunity to visit the caves of Eliiterhoehle and 
Sundwick, in Westphalia, but I was informed that they occur in the 
same transition limestone as those of Venders and Theux ; and in 
the Museum of the University of Bonn, I found magnificent heads 

* The manner in which these fissures are filled up to the surface of the soil is pre* 
cisely similar to that of the mud vems^ or dykes, which I have already described as oc- 
curring in the limestone rock at Chudleigh^ and to those dykes which Mr. Strangways 
(in the 5th vol. of the Geol. Trans. Plate ^6) has represented as occurring in vertical 
fissures of transition limestone on the banks of the Pulcovca, near Petersburg, and as 
being filled with diluvial gravel, containing boulders of granite, such as are scattered over 
the surface of all that country : these dykes have immediate communication with a bed 
of the same diluvium, also containing granite boulders, and reposing on the surface of the 
limestone in which the fissures occur. 

■ * 

It is probable that the observation of dykes, or veins, of this kind, so evidently filled 
by substances poiured in from above, suggested to Werner the erroneous idea, that 
basaltic and metallic veins also had been filled by materials introduced fi*om above in a 
similar manner. 



CAVE OF SCHARZFELD. ENTRANCE BY A FISSUBR 118 

of the fossil bear, tiger, and glutton, collected from thence. These 
heads have been recently described, with excellent engravings by 
Professor Goldfuss, in the Nova Acta Naturae Curiosorum, v. 10, and 
are precisely of the same species with those found in the caverns of 
England, the Hartz Forest, and Franconia. I have already men- 
tioned that further accounts of the Westphalian caves are in pre- 
paration by Professor Goldfuss, and M. A. L. Sack, of Bonn. 



III. CAVE OF SCHARZFELD. 



The next caverns I examined were those of Scharzfeld, near 
Herzberg, in Hanover, on the west border of the Hartz Forest, not 
far from (Jottingen. The rock in which these caves occur is mag- 
nesian limestone, of the same age with the limestone of Sunderland, 
in England, and being the first floetz limestone of Werner ; occasion- 
ally it is very cellular, and abounds in fissures and caverns. The 
position of the great cave containing the bones is at an elevation of 
at least 500 feet above the nearest river, and in the centre of one of 
the many wooded ridges which connect the higher mountains of the 
Hartz with the plain, and are separated fi*om each other by deep 
valleys of denudation. 

The entrance to this cave is not, as usually happens, in the side 
of a rocky cliff or precipice, but by an open fissure, placed like a well, 
in the surface of a plain field, and communicating directly downwards 
by a steep but practicable descent on ledges of rock into the body of 
the cave. (See Plate XIV. a, and explanation.) This fissure may 



luve^been^ tbe ad;iial aperture ^by ^Mdi the imimaid eame bfiUnA out 
whilB^'the' cKf e was iiiiiabited, and by whieh also tibe tnitd'uid^p^ 
bifiSttkat occur below were drifted in. Descending by it,' we find 
ourselres in a Imig^and lofty cavern, terminated at one eitremify by 
tlie fismnre just mentioned, and proceeding in the o|^>osite ^rectle^ 
to a great distaaace iibto the body of the hill. It haa several latidfal 
communkationa and connecting passages, for a detailed desoriptiMi 
of which I refer my readers to De Luc's Letters, voL 4. The point 
to which I wish, at present, to direct their attention, is the state of 
the floor and position of the bones. 

The floor appears to have been at one time (!6vered in many 
places with a crust of stalagmite, of which there are a few traces still 
remaining, but the greater part has been destroyed by Vilritors con* 
tinuftUy digging into the subjacent mud in search of boUes. Ili my 
dttawing^ (see Plate XIV. c) this cniist is restored to the state Ita which 
it probahty existed when the first diggings began to be made in i^; 
It present we see little more thau a bed of mud aiidpebbles^'an^ 
broken fiagments of stalagmite covering the bottom of the cave, and 
iiiterq>ersed with teeth of bears and other animals, and fragmeUtS <^ 
bdnes. " Itr some parts of the floor, holes like that at b have been 
dug'dirou^ this bed of' mud td the limestone rock below, for ^ht 
purpose of collecting bones ; in other parts the natural rock projects 
iltt>v6'tfa^'sttrflte» of >the mud, ftkid is without any stalagmite. The 
gcfaertd-^ Uff pe a t to be' ttf the Whote corresponds with the descriptidik 
gr^ti of it by Gottschalk m bis Guide fbr the Hartz : ** the bdttoin is 
iMtSt' e i iA y wh eirfr tstfvered Witii a fiHe iodse iimhf fiill of' broken 



UND£R VAULTIMjSS FILLED WITH MUD ANBCBONISS. lUt 



w. Mang tlie.«dges. of .this i floor » ore seen la iaomber of smaUeir 
Gaveme^ n^ch pass off from tlie maiii chamber tO'VazioHS distanoes 
in the body of the rock ; the bottom of these is ^Ued also with -tike 
samemafcerials that cover tli^ floor of the great chamber^ Beneath 
tibe latter are also numerous undervaultings, and small branching 
catacombs of irregular shape; (see h. i ;) some terminating in a col 
de sac^ x)thers commimicating by a lateral aperture mth some adr 
jacent carity, which again has further communications either with 
the main-chamber above^ or with .other smaller tmes below, so that 
the rock is intersected and undermined like an .irregular mass of 
honeycomb. These undervaultings have for the most part been en* 
tirely filled up, as at i, with a mass of brown earthy or diluvial loaitei 
through which, as their matrix, are disseminated enormous quantitieB 
of broken bone^ teeth^ angular fi»gments and pebbles of limestone, 
in the cavities thus choked up tibereis no room for any stalagmitic 
crust, as there is no expanded surface over which it could be spread. 
The mass which fills them, however, is in some parts firmly cemented 
together by stalagmitic infiltrations of calc sinter ; more frequently 
the mud is semi-indurated, spungy, and cellular, and may be readily 
cut with a knife; in other parts it is quite soft and loose, and the 
bones and pebbles are simply imbedded in it 

These lower vaults have in no case that I could find been laid 
open to their full extent, but are still choked up below with matttt 
of the nature above described, and would no doubt richly repay the 
labour of any person who has leisure to e:!(plore them. The excava^ 
tbns^ that have been made in them have prpducefl smaU artifidwl 
caverns, the sides and roof of which are crowded witli, and sometiiai^ 

a2 



116 NO BONES IN THE ROOF OR SIDES, ABOVE THE MUD. 

In great part made up of bones ; (see Plate XIV. h ;) but not a partkie 
of bone occurs adhering to the roof or sides of the great cumber (b) 
above the level of its floor *. 

There are several artificial excavations similar to that represented 
at H, in one of which I found the head of a large bear, firom whidh 
the upper part of the skull had been broken off, and a pebble lay i&i- 
bedded in mud in the cavity of the skull f . Close to it was an undtr 
jaw, (possibly of the same animal,) and both were surrounded with 
mud, pebbles, and bones, the latter exceeding in proportion both the 
former : they were so firmly packed together, that with a small ham- 
mer and chisel, I could advance but slowly in extracting them ; but, 
with proper instruments, cart-loads of bones might easily be obtained. 
Whilst working on this mass, I could not help imagining that I was 
in the cavernous fissure at Plymouth, so precisely analogous were all 
the circumstances before me to those I had there witnessed, as to the 
manner and matrix in which the bones were packed together, and 
the difficulty of unpacking without destroying them. Their state of 

* I dwell more on this drcumstanee than I should have otherwise thought neces* 
sary, because preceding writers on this subject have overlooked the important distino* 
lion I am now drawing, and have stated the occurrence of bones in Ae roof and sides 
in such general terms^ that persons who have not themselves carefully inspected the 
caverns with a view to this particular point may conclude from their descriptions that 
die bones are found indiscrimlnirtely adherbg to the sides and roof of the upper diam- 
bers, as well as of die lower vaults, which is not the &ct 

t In another skull from this cave, which was given me by Professor Blumenbadit 
the cavities of the brun and nose are entirely flBed up with the same kind of brown nifl: 
and in a third which I found at Gaikprcsuibt the cavity of the brain contains half a dozen 
fragments of stone cemented together by calc sinter. These specimens I have deposited 
in die Museum at Oxford, together with a complete series of bones, &&; iHiistyiatfaig all 
the moat important phenomena amndoMd in tbia work, a^ OQcunring in, Reaves of 
Genoany, as weO aa in those of £ngland« 



CAVE OF BAUMANS HOHLEL 117 

tureeervation also is nearly the saxne^ being less perfect than is usual 
in the other caves of Germany and England. Instead of the ordinary 
white or yellow, they are of a dingy brown colour approaching to 
bkck ; and whilst wet may be readily crushed to a dark earth-like 
powder, which I presume to be the black earth said by many writers 
to abound in this cavern, but of which I could neither here, nor 
in any other cave^ excepting that of Eiihloch, near Muggendor^ dis- 
cover any further traces, though I looked for it very carefully in every 
direction. The circumstances of this exception are very peculiar, 
and will presently be described. The looseness of the earth in which 
the bones are for the most part embedded, both at Scharzfeld 
and Plymouth, and the comparatively small quantity of stalagmite 
that accompanies them, may explain the cause of their greater 
state of decay than is usual where the mud is more argillaceous, 
or the incrustation of each individual bone with stalagmite more 
emnplete. 



IV. CAVE OF BAUMANS HOHLE. 

This celebrated and much frequented cave^ or suite of caverns, 
1^ already been described by Leibnitz in his Frotegsea. It de- 
rived its name from an unfortunate miner, who^ in the year 1670, 
ventured alone to explore its recesses in search of ore; and after 
liaving wandered three days and nights in total solitude and dark- 
less, at length found his way out in a state of such complete exhaus* 
Ii9n,.that he died almost immediately. It lies in a bed of transition 
liiliestone at the village of Bubeland, about two miles below the town 
of Elbingrode, on the north-east border of the Harta^ and in the 



118 MOUTH IN A NEARLY YERTICAIi CLIFF. 

opuntiy of Blankenburg ; its relative podtipn to the neirest ri^er it 
^ow when compared with Scharzfeld, being at an eleYatkHi of about 
100 feet above the bed of the JBode ; this, however, ]g suffieient ta 
assure mSj that it is quite impossible to attribute the pebbks and 
mud within this cave to any floods of that river, which could not fise 
ten feet without destroying the adjacent village of Subeland* Above 
ibis village is seen the present entrance of the cave, in a nearly p^« 
pendicular cliff, which forms the left side of a deep gorg^ throu^ 
MTihich the river runs, and whidi is similar to that through wiiich the 
Avon passes at Clifton. ^See Plate XV. i..) The breadth €i tim gorge 
varies &am 100 to 300 feet, its d^th is about 150; the rodks 0n both 
sides, of it are neady poecipitous. in the drawing the scale is ftlsified 
as to breadth, far the sake of getting »room^. 

The present entrance (see Plate XV.) is by the aperture A^into a 
low flat cavan, ISfset broadband five feet high ; the outer ^ctiemity 
of which is in the truncated face of the cli£^ whilst within, it desoends 
rapidly to the broad and lofty chamber b. The form of this chamber 
is irregularly oblong, varying from SO to 50 feet in diameter, and 
from 10 to 20 in height, and affording some of the most grand and 
picturesque features of cave scenery. The floor of this cave resembles 
in all its circumstances that of the great cave at Scharzfeld, vridi the 
addition of several large masses of rock (see o, o) lliat havi^ ftHen 

* This gorge is aimply a valley of denudation, produced (like hundreds ivhlch I 
could mention in compact limestone countHes) by -die fdroe of the dilurian wiaferk TM 
dotted line n (Plate XV.) represents the mannerin vhic^i, die two sides were .prd)ahl^ 
connected before the excavation of the gorge, and m the probable continuity of the pre- 
sent mouth of the cave a to the then esdetii^ surftce. As I shall hereafter ioiUidfo the 
evidence geology affords of the formation of such valleys by the diluvian wateppi^Xiit prt» 
sent beg those of my readers to whom tiiiiii subject is new to allow die &ct to be assumed 
in the case immediately before us. 



BONES CRUSHED AND POU)^ED BY LARGE PEBBLES. 119 



from the roof, and stand high above the Surface of the mud and 
l^oken stdagmite, which is represented as restored at c. Frmnthe 
great cave b, we descend by the passage d to the hollow vault e, the 
lower half ci which contains beneath a thick crust of stalagmite, an 
aecnmulation of several feet of mud or sand mixed with bones^ and 
eKtremely large pebbles of transition limestone ; the mud and peb- 
bles have been separated from each other^ and drifted to different 
pinrts of this vault. The bones which lie in the mud and sand are 
not much brokeni and about 80 years ago some very entire ones were 
extracted from it, and sent to the Museum at Brunswick ; but those 
which occur among the pebbles are more than usually fractured, and 
some ci them stamped or pounded, as if in a mortar, into hundreds 
of small splinters, which adhere by stalagmite to the sur&ce of 8<»ne 
of the largest pebbles : none of them, however, have lost their angles^ 
oar are in any way rounded ; but they are simply broken or crushed 
wl^ in juxtar-position to the heavy pebbles, which are more abun- 
dant and larger here than in any other part of this, or indeed of any 
cavern I have yet visited. 

It foUows from these facts, that the pebbles could not have 
received iheir actual state of perfbct roundness by violent agitation 
of water within the cave itself, as in this ease the bones also would 
either have be^i reduced to pebbles, or totally destroyed; they 
were probably, therefore^ rounded before they reached their pre- 
sent jdace^ being dmved from the limestone rocks of the adjacent 
country, and drifted in by the mouthA and its prolongative m, whikt 
tlvp valley x was in the act of being excavated. Thus introduced, 
tiitfy might have passed downwards amposs ihe cavern b to the vault B| 



120 INNEB PARTS OF BAUMANS HOHLR 

where the rock f would form an impediment to their furthev 
progress ; many bones that lay in the great cave b would pass fi»u 
ward with these pebbles into e, and others may have already been 
laid there ; in either case, a rapid movement of the large pebbles 
must have been necessary to crush to pieces the large and strong 
bones, whose sharp and angular splinters now adhere to them^ 
Their state again is totally different firom that of the splinters in the 
den at Eirkdale, which latter are as obviously the eflfect of fracture 
by the hyaenas' teeth, as the former are of a violently crushing blow, 
imparted by a heavy mass of stone. These splinters, as well as the 
less injured bones that lie among the pebbles, are held together by 
stalagmite, by which they adhere to, and form with the pebbles 
a strong breccia ; their preservation from decay is complete^ and 
their colour that of natural bone, or light cream colour. 

Within the vault e, the rock f rises almost suddenly about SO 
feet, and must be crossed by ladders ; on the further side of it, we 
dejscend again a considerable distance by a lofty and rugged aperture a, 
to the lower cavern h, from the roof and sides of which there ascend 
other passages resembling k, which I did not explore, but of 
which, and indeed of the whole cavern, a ground plan is given by 
Leibnitz, in his Frotogasa, Plate I. By some of these passages, the 
pebbles may have come in which we find below, in the cavern h. 
This cavern has, from its position in the inmost recesses, and its 
difficulty of access, been not much disturbed, and has several off- 
shoots, the contents of which are still glazed over with a corust of 
virgin stalagmite : in others, the stalagmite has been broken through 
as at I ; and artificial vaults, like those at Scharzfeld, have been dug 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO BAUMANS HOHLE. CAVE OP BIELS HOHLE. 121 

some feet into the subjacent mass of mud, which is also loaded with 
teeth, bones, and pebbles, but not with such large pebbles, or in such 
unusual quantity as in the vault e. The roof and sides of the 
artificial cave i have bones adhering to them, being in fact composed 
of a breccia of bones and agglutinated mud ; but in none of the 
natural chambers do we find bones adhering to the side and roof 
above the surface of the mud and stalagmite. 

AU these circumstances are corroborative of the hypothesis I am 
endeavouring to establish. First, That the agent, by which the mud 
and pebbles were introduced, was the same diluvial waters, which 
extirpated the animals that had antecedently inhabited the cave. 
Secondly, That this diluvial detritus was not introduced at different 
intervals by the action of rivers, or land-floods, but was by one single 
operation superadded to the bones already existing in the dens. 
Thirdly, Tliat the period of its introduction is that from which 
we must begin to date the formation of the superficial crust of 
stalagmite, by which these diluvian and antediluvian records have 
been sealed lip, and maintained in such high preservation to the 
present hour. 



CAVE OF BIELS ItOHLE. 

This cavern is said to have derived its name from a heathen 
temple that formerly stood on the edge of the cliff immediately 
above it, and of which some traces still exist : its position is at the 
distance of but a few hundred yards &om the Baumans Hohle, last 
described ; and at nearly the same elevation in the cli^ on the op- 

R 



^^ 



122 CAVE OF BIELS HOHLE— CONTAINS NO BONES. STALAGMITE. 

posite side of the gorge, e, and on the right bank of the Bode river. 
(See Plate XVI.) No bones have as yet been discovered in it, nor 
does it contain any such lofty and broad chambers, as those at Scharz- 
feld, and Baumans Hohle: it is composed of a succession of cavernous 
vaults, ascending and descending irregularly in the transition lime^ 
stone, and communicating with, and intersected by, other similar 
tubes, which traverse the body of the rock in various directions 
(see Plate XVI. c. c. c.) It is remarkable for the beauty of the 
stalactite that hangs from its roof, and the quantity of stalagmite that 
forms an universal cover of considerable thickness over its floor; 
but it has not as yet been discovered to contain bones. In passing 
through it, we are obliged to ascend by ladders a succession of rocky 
projections or pinnacles (see Plate XVI. d. d. d.), between which 
we descend into as many intervening hollows or basins of unequal 
size and height, b. b. b.; and having entered by the small hole a in 
the cliffy overhanging the Eiver Bode, we come out by an artificial 
hole in the same cliff, at a small distance from the former. Other 
cavities of the same kind rise probably to the surface of the land by 
the tubes c. c. c, and are choked up by diluvium. The dotted lines 
F. a. represent the restoration of the rock and of the tube a to the 
state in which they probably existed before the excavation of the 
gorge E. 

This cave appears to be one of those which has never been 
inhabited as a den by wild beasts, as had it been so, it is probable 
some traces of bones would have been found in the excavations 
which have been dug in its floor, for the purpose of making an easy 
path for visitors, that crowd to see the beautv of its stalactite. To 



MUD AND SAND IN ITS CAVITIES AND ON ITS PINNACLES. 123 

myself, these excavations afforded matter of much higher interest, as 
they enabled me to identify beneath the crusts of stalagmite h. h. the 
same bed of diluvial mud i. i., which I had already seen at Baumans 
Hohle, and Scharzfeld, and Theux, and in the caves of England, and 
alternating also as it does at Plymouth, with thin beds of blue clay, 
and coarse loose sand, mixed abundantly with small fragments of 
greywacke slate and clay slate. I was told, though I did not see 
them, that it sometimes contains pebbles. It is remarkable, that this 
diluvium is accumulated on the top of the pinnacles d. d. d., in 
nearly as great quantity as in the intermediate basins b. b. b. ; and 
here again, we have another analogy to the caves at Plymouth, 
viz. that wherever there was a ledge, or shelf, or basin, however 
minute, whereon there was space enough for the smallest deposit 
to take place, from a mass of water loaded with mud, and sand, there 
these materials have found a lodgment, and have ever since re- 
mained undisturbed, under a gradually accumulating crust of stalag- 
mite. The single post-diluvian crust h. h. is the only one that 
appears both in the basins and on the pinnacles : it is spread on the 
upper sur&ce only of the diluvial sediment i. i. ; and in no case has 
it been found to alternate with the mud, or sand, or clay, of which 
this sediment is composed. I was unable to ascertain, whether or 
not there be (as at Eirkdale), a subjacent crust of stalagmite, accu- 
mulated on the native rock beneath, before the introduction of the 
mud* On the surface of the upper stalagmite there is a quantity of 
mould, which has been brought in by the present guide from the 
adjacent fields for the purpose of making a path in the interior 
of the cave. 

r2 



124 CAVES IN FRANCONIA— POSITION OF THE DISTRICT. 



CAVES IN FEANCONIA. 



Having thus far ascertained, by careful examination of the most 
important caverns in the Hartz, that there exists no discrepancy, or 
rather a complete analogy in all their phenomena to those of the 
caves in England, allowing as much as is due to the different habits 
of the animals whose remains we find in them respectively, my 
next attention was directed to the no less celebrated assemblage of 
caverns in Franconia, situated in the district round Muggendorf, in 
the Upper Palatinate, about SO miles N. E. of Nurenberg, in the 
direction of Bareuth, and nearly in a central point between the 
three towns of Nurenberg, Bareuth, and Bamberg, (see Map, at 
Plate XIX.) The position of this district is at one of the great 
water heads of central Europe, from which the streams descend on 
one side southwards, by the Naab and Danube, to the Black Sea, and 
on the other, by the Mayn and Bhine, to the German Ocean. It 
is composed of an assemblage of limestone beds, corresponding with 
the lias, oolite, green sand, and chalk formations of England, and with 
the Jura and Alpine limestones of the Continent ; and forms the im- 
portant link by which the Jura chain, and its continuations in the 
Bough or Swabian Alps, are connected with the same formations in 
the north of Germany, where they are designated by the Wemerian 
appellation of first and second floetz limestone, and Muschel kalk. 
The limestone of the immediate vicinity of Muggendorf has been^ 
{torn its cavernous nature, locally designated by the name of Hohlen 



PRESENT MOUTHS NOT THE ORIGINAL ONES. 125 

kalk (Hole limestone) ; and it seems more nearly allied to the calca- 
reous portions of our green sand formation than to any other strata 
of the English series ; but differs from them in aspect, in consequence 
of its containing a large admixture of magnesia, and very few organic 
remains. This district is at present for the most part cultivated, and 
without any other beasts of prey than foxes and a few wolves ; but there 
appears to have been a time when its savage population was prodi- 
giously great, and the bones of thousands of gigantic bears, and other 
wild beasts, which once swarmed in the caverns, with which its hills are 
perforated, still remain to attest their antediluvian dominion over it. 

Though at an high elevation, this district cannot be said to be 
mountainous; its valleys indeed are flanked by precipitous crags, 
which, when seen from below, have all the ruggedness and picturesque 
form of Alpine scenery ; but they are narrow, and not deep, rarely 
exceeding SCO feet, and are simply valleys of denudation, excavated by 
the diluvian waters on the surface of an elevated calcareous plAin, 
which was the scene on which the bears and hyaenas that are 
entombed in the recesses of its caverns ranged unmolested by the 
approach of man. 

The entrance to the cavema at that time would have been by 
apertures on the siuface of this plain, like that described as now 
existing at Scharzfeld, and of which some are found still open in the 
more elevated parts of this neighbourhood ; and it seems to have 
been by these original apertures and fissures rising to the level 
sur&ce of the main table-land^ rather than by the present mouths 
in the vertical &ce of the cliffi, that the pebbles, and probably 
great part of the mud that occurs vdthin the caves^ found their 



126 MOUTHS IN THE FACE OF VERTICAL CLIFFS. 

admission: these present mouths must have formed part of the 
interior of the caverns, before the matter which once filled the 
valleys had been swept away. When viewed on a correct map 
(see Plate XIX.), or looked at from the simimit of a distant hiU, 
these valleys appear but as open gutters on the surface of a 
meadow, falling into a main gutter, by which the whole of their 
waters are carried off, in the same manner as the streams of the 
Esbach, the Weissent, and others pass off by the main valley of 
Muggendorf The manner in which the present mouths of the 
caverns appear in the cliffs that flank these valleys will at once be 
understood by referring to Plate XVIII., c. e. i. where three of them 
are represented in the cliffs that flank the valley of the Esbach, near 
the castle of Babenstein, and to the map at Plate XIX., in which the 
place of each cavern is correctly marked, and a view given of the 
mouth of the cave of Gailenreuth. 

•From these preliminary observations on the district, I proceed to 
describe in detail a few of the most important caverns which it 
contains. I shall select five, and treat of them in the following 
order ; first, Forster's Hohle ; second, Kabenstein ; third, Zahuloch i 
fourth, Gailenreuth ; fifth, Kiihloch. 



> 



l.~FORSTER'S HOHLE. 

This cave is situated near the village of Weischenfeld, in the 
steep and rocky slope that forms the right flank of the valley of the 
Zeubach. It was not till within these few vears that it attracted 



FORSTER'S HOHLE. BEAUTY OF ITS STALAGMITE. 127 

any attention, or was indeed accessible without great difficulty, its 
only opening • having been a hole in the roof, through which it was 
necessary to be let down by ropes or a long ladder. More recently 
a lateral adit had been driven into it by an innkeeper named Forster, 
nearly on the level of the floor, and forms the present entrance. 
This cave is one of the most remarkable I have ever seen, for the 
beauty of its roof, and perfection of its stalagmite ; but contains no 
other bones than a few of dogs and modern animals, which have 
recently been placed in it as appropriate furniture. Its height varies 
fh)m 10 to SO feet ; its breadth where widest being about 80. Its 
floor is no where quite level, and the subjacent rock is buried under 
a deep bed of diluvial mud, over which is superinduced a more 
than usually thick covering of stalagmite. The form of this stalag- 
mite is particularly striking in the side vaults that descend in various 
directions into the main chamber, being inclined at an angle of about 
45®, and having the lower half of their area filled also with mud ; Dn 
the surface of which entire bridges of thick stalagmite are formed 
across from side to side, presenting the varied features and irregular 
undulations of large and beautiful cascades, suddenly congealed into 
a mass of transparent alabaster : large waving streams oif this orna- 
mental substance are seen descending into the main chamber from 
all the lateral avenues by which it is encircled, and contributing, as 
it were, to swell the stalagmitic lake that occupies its centre. The 
roof also of the main chamber, as well as of its side aisles, is in all 
parts broken into, and clustered over with irregularly grotesque 
forms of exquisite beauty, rivalling the richest combinations of the 



128 FRETTED ROOF. MUD ON THE FLOOR. 

most complicated gothic fret-work, and far surpassing them in the 
wild and irregular varieties in which its masses descend^ like inverted 
pinnacles, to meet the icy lake of stalagmite that covers the floor. 
The quantity of stalactite dependant from this roof is comparatively 
small ; and though extremely beautiful, it forms a subordinate feature 
only in this most magnificent vault ; the peculiar beauty of which 
consists in the deep carious cavities into which its entire surface has 
been corroded, and the endless succession of sharp points and ridges, 
and irregularly projecting partitions, that stand in high relief between 
these cavities, and descend many feet, suspended almost by nothing, 
into the body of the cavern. With respect to the muddy sediment 
that occurs below the stalagmitic floor, it remains only to observe, 
that its thickness has not been ascertained, though several holes have 
been dug in it to the depth of three or four feet: it contains 
numerous angular fragments of Umestone, but I could find no 
pebbles. I have already stated that there are no bones : it probabfy 
was inaccessible, or at least not tenanted at the period when the beaiB 
were in occupation of this coimtry. By the holes dug into this mud 
it appears that there is no trace of any other crust, or even of a film 
of stalagmite alternating with it, so as to lead us to infer that it was not 
deposited at one and the same period, and by the same inundation that 
introduced a similar sediment into all the other caves of which I have 
been speaking. Whether there be any under crust of antediluvian 
stalagmite between it and the subjacent rock, I could not ascertain. 
There is not a particle of mud, or even of dust, above the surface of 
the upper crust of stalagmite, or interposed between its component 



130 CAVE OF ZAHNLOCft^rrS POSITION HIGH. 

bones of sheep, dogs, foxes, and some smaller animals. These vrere 
not invested with stalagmite, and were in the same state with the 
recent bones discovered in the modern fissure at Duncombe Park. 



«• CAVE OF ZAHNLOCH. 



The next cave I propose to speak of is that of ZahnJoeh (or the 
Hole of Teeth), so called from the abundance of Ibssil teeth that 
have been extracted from it, and being situated about two miles on 
the south-east of Bi^benstein* Its position is not like that of the 
other caverns I have to describe in this neighbourhood, in a cliff 
that flanks some one or other of the valleys, but near the summit of 
a hill called Hohen Mirschfeld, which rises above the main table- 
land, and forms one *of the most elevated points of tlm district^ 
being about 600 feet above the valley of Muggendorf. (See Plate XIX.) 
The entrance of this cave is a low oven*-shaped aperture in a very 
small rock, that projects through the grass in the north slope, of a 
green and naked hilL It is visible at a considerable distaffic^ and 
must have attracted notice firom^ 'the earliest times: it 1$ alxnit ten 
feet broad, and four feet high, and leads immediately into an ex^ensff e 
crypt-like diamber, about 60 :feet in length, and varying fyixtn:^ SO 
to 40 feet in breadth^ but so low that there are few parts in which it 
is posdble to stand upright From the edge of this l^^ger diamber 
there branch off several smaller imdet vaultings, and on one «dte of 
it is a dftvem the height of which is more considerable than that of 
the mam chamber, >and in the middle of which stands a large in^ 



ANCIENT AND MODERN BONES IN IT. SEPULCHRAL URN. 181 

sulated block of stone, rising about six feet above the present floor^ 
and remarkable for having its sur&ce smoothed over (ios if it had 
been polished), in a way which the natural rock never presents. 
There is much dripping of water, but very little stalactite hanging 
from the roof and sides of any of these chambeins, and probably the 
floor also has never been invested with much stalagmite. At present 
it is strewed over, to the depth of several feet, with a mass of brown 
loam, mixed with numerous pebbles and angular fragments of lime- 
iltone, with teeth also, and fragments of bones of bears, and other 
extinct animals, and with recent bones of hares, foxes, dogs, and 
sheep : I found also a fi^agment of a rude sepulchral um^ but could 
discover few traces only of black earth. The average depth of this loam 
must be four or five feet : the entire bulk of it has been again and 
again dug over in search of teeth and bones, of which it still contains 
considerable quantities. Even the smaller under vaultings have been 
ransacked to their extremities ; so that there is no possibility of 
seeing in its natural state any part of this mixed mass, which now 
covers the floor. Still all its phenomena, allowing for the dis- 
turbances that have taken place by digging, are condstent in every 
respect with those of the other adjacent caverns : the introduction g£ 
the mud and pebbles may be referred^ as usual, to diluvial agency; 
some of the angular fragments may have been washed in others ; have 
fellen from the roof; the teeth and bones of the extinct animals may 
be referred to the wild beasts that inhabited the cave before the in- 
troduction of the mud, and the sepulchral urn to the use that has 
since been made of it for the reception of human remains ; whilst the 
bones of hares, foxes^ dogs, and sheep, are derived from animals that 

s2 



182 BLOCK OF STONE POLISHED BY BEARS. 

may at any time have entered spontaneously, or been dragged into it, 
the mouth being so large, and having no appearance of ever having 
been shut up. 

Its most remarkable phenomenon is the polished surface of the 
great insulated block of stone, which stands like a sarcophagus in the 
middle of the side chamber. Not being aware of it at the time I was 
there, I did not observe this circumstance myself, but Bosenmuller 
states, and Goldfuss repeats it, that the surface of this block is all over 
smooth, as if polished (glatt wie polirt) in a manner which must be 
attributed to some cause external to the rock itself, and which its 
place and circumstances seem to induce us to refer to no other than 
friction from the skin and paws of the antediluvian bears*. (Goldfuss 
Taschenbuch, p. ISO.) 

* It is only necessary to examine the habits of modem bears as delineated after 
nature in Ridinger*s excellent engravings of wild animals, or to have seen the agility and 
apparent delight with which the bears in the Jardin du Roi at Paris climb up a tree 
placed for this purpose in their open den, to feel assured that if the habits of antediluvian 
bears were at all like those of existing species, such a pedestal as that we are speaking of 
would have been subjected to continual friction from the ascending and descending of 
these animals, whilst they inhabited the den : see Ridinger's Plates, No. 81, where he re- 
presents the interior of a den of bears, in which most of them are climbing up rocks, and 
one is in the very act of mounting a pedestal similar to that in Zahnloch. The numbers 
also in which he represents them as herded together (seven or eight in the same cave), 
show them to be gregarious, and illustrate the otherwise almost inexplicable fact of the 
remains of so many hundred bears being assembled together in four or five such cavcHSf a3 
those of Scharzfeld, Baumans Hohle, Zahnloch, Grailenreuth, and Kuhloch. 



CAVE OF GAILENBEUTH. POSITION OF ITS MOUTH. 188 



CAVE OF GAILENREUTH. 

I have already mentioned this cave, as the most remarkable in the 
country we are now speaking of, for the quantity and high state of 
perfection of the bones that have been extracted from it, and for the 
descriptions that have been given of them by Esper, Rosenmuller, and 
other writers. I had visited it in 1816 with less attention to its 
minute details, and had then overlooked the circumstance of the bed 
of mud and pebbles, which I now find to be mixed with the bones, 
and placed between the stalagmitic crust and native rock, which forms 
the actual floor of the cavern ; in other respects the drawing I have 
given in my first edition in the Phil. Trans. 1822, differs not materially 
from that which I have now substituted for it at Plate XVII. 

Its mouth is situated in a perpendicular rock, in the highest part of 
the cliffs which form the left side of the valley of the Weissent River, 
at an elevation of more than 300 feet above its bed. (Siee Plate XIX. 
m the comer of which is a view of it, copied from a print in Espcr.) 
This valley being, as I before stated, simply a valley of denudation, the 
present entrance could not have been the original one, as it existed 
before the excavation of the valley ; we now enter by an aperture 
about seven feet high and twelve feet broad in the cliff just men- 
tioned, and close to it observe an open fissure, rising from the cave 
toward the table land immediately above; this fissure is also re- 
presented in the view of the mouth of the cave I have just referred to, 
and by it, or by other similar fissures, the mud and pebbles we shall 



184 INNER CHAMBERS. BONES, PEBBLES, AND LOAM. 

find within were possibly introduced. The form and ccmnexions 
of the cave will be best understood by referring to the drawing at 
Plate XVII. It consists principally of two large chambers^ b and r» 
varying in breadth from ten to thirty feet, and in height from three to 
twenty feet: the roof is in most parts abundantly hung^th stalactite; 
and in the first icbam!>er^ b, the floor is nearly icovei^ed ynQi stalagmite^ 
c, piled in irregular Thamillated heaps, one of which in ttie- centre, is 
accumulated into a large pillar uniting the roof to the floofr ^ From b 
we descend hy ladders to ^ second chamber,^ f, the floor of which also 
appears to hwire:h!een once overspread wijth ^ similar gtalagmitic crust: 
this, howevei^'haii been nearly destroyed by holes dug throu^ it| in 
search of the prodigi^ua quantities of bone^ that lie beneath- The cave^ 
F, is copneeted by a low and narrow passage, m, with a smalkt eavem^ 
N, at the bottom of whidi is a nearly circular hole, k^ descending like 
a well about twenty-five feet» and from three to four feet in disineter, 
into which you let yduradf down, as in climbing a chimney^ by sup* 
porting the handSy feet, and back against the opposite sidei. In 
descending this hole» we find its drcmmference to be for the moft part 
composed of a breccia of bones, pebbles, and loam, cemented by ttalag* 
mite : on one aide of it is a lateral cavity, l, w)iich is entirely artifidalt 
and is the spot firom which the most perfect skulls and bone« have 
been extracted in the greatest abundance ; the lowest cavity, cb^ ia 
also entirely surrounded with the breccia aboye described ; how mudb 
deeper, or how widely it may extend, has not yet been ascertained* 
The roof and the sides of the artificial cavities^ k and i^ having been 
dug in the breccia^ are crowded with teeth and bones ; but tl^se latter 
do not occur in the roof or sides of any of the upper or natural 



FLOOR OF fIBST CHAMBER. 185 

chambers above the level of the stalagmitic cntat that covers their 
floor : this observation, as I have before mentioned, applies equally to 
all the other caverns I have been describing, and is important on 
account of the erroneous statements and opinions which exist on this 
subject. The floor of the first chamber b has been stated to be at 
this time almost entirely covered with a crust of stalagmite ; on the 
sur&ee of this crust is a quantity of blackish mould, mixed with ashes 
and charcpal : the latter being derived from fires that are firequently 
made to illumiseate the cave ; the former is vegetable mould, which 
has been brought in from the adjacent land, possibly for the purpose 
of making a path over the slippery stalagmite, as has been lately done 
at Biel's Hole in the Hartz. Through this crust of stalagmite some 
large holes have been dug resembling that at e, and in these we see a 
bed of brown diluvial loam and pebbles, mixed with angular fisgments 
of rock, and with teeth and bones ; but the latter being less abundant 
here than in the deeper chambers of the cave, the floor has firom this 
circumstance been for the most part left entire. I could not ascertain 
the depth of this diluvium ; where I saw it^ it was three or four feet^ 
but the rodk below was still invisible. The^ bones of bearish tibat lie 
loosely scattered over the surface of the stalagmite^ and even on the 
outside of the cave's mouth, are rejected fiiagments that have been 
dug out firom beneath it, or firom the lower cavities ;' and they are 
mixed with the rec^it bones of dogs, sheep, fiixei^ &c. that have en^ 
tered in modem times by the open mouth, a. 

In the second chamber, c, the diluvium is of the same description 
as in B, but more abundantiy loaded with bones; for this reason it 
has been more disturbed, and the crust remains entire only in a few 
places. Its depth appears to be irregular, and in parts extremely 



186 FLOOR OF SECOND CHAMBER- OSSEOUS BRECCIA. 

great At h a side chamber descends rapidly into the body of the 
rock, and contains cart-loads of teeth, bones, and pebbles, dispersed 
through a loose mass of brown diluvial loam, but not united by sti^ 
lagmite, as in the adjacent cavities, k and l. In these latter they axe 
firmly cemented together into a compact breccia, and aocumukted in 
a heap of at least 25 feet in depth, from the top, k, to the bottom, k k. 
The distribution of the component materials of this breccia is irre- 
gular : in some parts the earthy matter is wholly wanting and we 
have simply a congeries of agglutinated bones ; in others, the pebbles 
abound ; in a third place, one half of the whole mass is kam, and the 
remainder teeth and bones : at k the top, and k k the bottom of the 
well, pebbles and bones occur mixed together in the same propchrtiou 
as in the middle regions of it. The state of preservation of the bones 
when incrusted in stalagmite, is quite perfect, and the colour yel- 
lowish white; those extracted from the loose earth in the upper 
chambers are of a darker hue, and the total decay of some of them 
seems to have produced a blackish colour in the loam immediately 
adjacent to them ; but I could no where find the beds entirdiy com- 
posed of black animal earth described by preceding observers, as oc- 
curring in this and other caverns. 

All these phenomena are in perfect harmony with those of the 
other caverns in Germany and England ; the upper parts of the 
existing cave, and probably others, which have been cut away by de- 
nudation, seem to have been the lodging : places of wild beasts, that 
Uved and died in them in the period preceding' the introduction of 
the mud and pebbles ; the diluvial waters rushing, as they could 
not fail to do, into these caverns, would introduce pebbles and mud, 
and would also drift downwards to their lowest recesses the bones 



CAVE OF KUHLOCH. PECULIAR CONTENTS. 187 

that lay perhaps more eqiiaUy distributed than they are at present. 
Since this event, the accumuMion of stalagmite on the surface of the 
mud, and in the interstices of the hoUow masses of bones and peb- 
bles, is the only geological change that appears to have taken place : 
the limestone rock of the actual floor rarely projects so as to be visible 
beneath the false floor of diluvial matter and bones with which it is 
overspread; in one place where it does so, in the low passage m, it 
is smooth and highly polished, like the pedestal in Zahnloch ; but 
whether from the paws of bears, or the hands and knees of post- 
diluvian visitors, or the united action of both, I will not venture to 
determine. I could ilot ascertain whether there was any stalagmitic 
crust below the mud, as in the cave of Eirkdale. 



CAVE OF KUHLOCH. 

It now remains only to speak of the cave of Kiihloch^ which is more 
reniarkable than all the rest, as being the only one I have ever seen, 
excepting that of Kirkdale, in which the animal remains have escaped 
disturbance by diluvial action ; and the only one also in which I could 
find the masses of black animal earth, iKud by other writers to occur 
so generally, and for which many of them appear to have mistaken the 
diluvial loam in which the bones are so universally imbedded. The 

* * . • 

only thing at all like it, that I could find in any of the other caverns, 
were fragments of highly decayed bone, which occurred in the loose 
part of the diluvial sediment in the caves of Scharzfeld, Zahnloch, and 
Gailenreuth ; but in the cave of Kiihloch it is far otherwise. It is 
literally true that in this single cavern (the size and proportions of 



138 QUANTITY OF BLACK ANQfAL EARTH. 

which are neaily equai io • thote t£ tibe rateriop of a large' (^todiy titeMi 
are hundreds of: cari-ldads o£Uadr animal dast entirely ebvei^g^thj^ 
whole floor, to a depth which must average at least six ftet^ iand w 
if we multiply this depth by lii^iengfii and brejewLth of th« etiveliA, "vHU 
be fbimd to exceed 5000 cubic feet. Thewhole of this mass has b6m 
again and again dug over in search of teeth and bones, wMdi it sCifl 
contams abundantly, though in broken fragtfefnts. * The state <if these 
is very different from that of the bones we find in any ctf the other 
caverns^ being of a black, or more properly speaking, dark umber colour 
throughout, like tiie bones of mummies, and many of llieim readily 
crumbling under the finger into a soft dark powder resembling 
mummy powder, and being of the same nature with the blac^ earth 
in which they are embedded. The quantity of animal matter accu- 
mulated on this floor is the most surprising, and the only thing of 
the kind I ever witnessed ; and many hundred, I may say thousand, 
individuals must have contributed their remains to make up this 
appalling mass of the dust of death. It seems in great part 4o be 
derived from comminuted and pulverised bone ; for the fleshy parts 
of animal bodies produce by their decomposition so smalLa-quantity 
of permanent earthy residuum, that we must seek for the origin of 
this mass principally in decayed bones. The cave is so dry, 4hat the 
black earth lies in the state of loose powder, and rises in dust undev 
the feet ; it also retains so large a proportion of its original animal 
matter,, that it is. occasionally used by the peasairts as an emichiiig 
manure for the adjacent meadows*. 

* I have stated^ that the total quantity of animal matter that lies within this cayeni 
cannot be computed at less than fiOOO-cubie feet; now allowing two cubic feel of dntl 



MOUTH OF KlJHIiOCH. STATE OF ITS INTERIOR. 189 

..... The ^ctesior of this^cavem presents a iQity.ftrchs, in.« /nearly per-- 
pendicular cU£^ which fcoms the left flank pf the gofge of ^the Esbach^ 
opposite the castle of Babenstein. (See Plate XYIII, &) The 
depth of the .valley below it is less thaa SO ^feet, whilst above it the 
hill rises xapidly, and sometimes precipitously^ to 150 or SOO feet. 
Thia narrow valley or gorge is simply a vaUey of denudation, by 
which the waters of the Eshach d fall into those of the Weissent. 
The breadth of the entrance arch is about 30 feet, its hei^t 20 feet. 
As we advance inwards the cave increases in height and breadth, and 
near its inner extremity divides into two large and lofty chambers, 
both of which terminate in a close round end, or cul de sac, at the 
distance of about 100 feet from the entrance. It is intersected by no 
fissures, and has no lateral communications connecting it with any 
other caverns, except one smaU hole dose to its mouth, and which 
opens also to the valley. These circumstances are important, as they 
wiU assist to explain the peculiarly undisturbed state in which the 
interior of this cavern has remained, amid the diluvial changes that 
have aflEected so many others. The inclinationof the floor, for about 
80 feet nearest the mouth, (see Plate XVni. £,)is very^conaiderable, 
and but little earth is lodged upon it ; but further in, thainterior of 
the cavern g is entirely covered with a mass of dark brown or blackish 
earth h, through which are disseminated, in great . abundance, the 
faones^md teeth of bears and other animals, and a- few small angular 
imgments of limesUme, of the same nature with the rpof from which 

and bones for each individual animal, we shall have in this single vault the remains of at 
least 2600 bears, a number which may have been supplied in the space of 1000 years, by 
a mortality at the rate of two and a half per annum. 

T 2 



140 CAUSE OF ITS PECULIARITIES. 

they have probably fallen, but I could find no rolled pebbles. The 
upper portion of this earth seems to be mixed up with a quantity of 
calcareous loam, which, before it had been disturbed by digging, pro- 
bably formed a bed of diluvial sediment over the animal remains ; but, 
as we sink deeper, the earth gets blacker and more firee from loam, 
and seems wholly composed of decayed animal matter. There is 
no appearance of either stalactite or stalagmite having ever existed 
within this cavern. 

In some of the particulars here enumerated, there is an apparent 
inconsistency with the phenomena of other caverns, but the dif- 
ferences are such as arise from the peculiar position and circumstances 
as the cave at Kiihloch : the absence of pebbles, and the presence of 
such an enormous mass of animal dust, are the anomalies I allude 
to ; and both these circumstances indicate a less powerful action of 
diluvial waters ¥dthin this cave than in any other, excepting £irkdale» 
To these waters, however, we miust still principally refer the intro- 
duction of the brown loam ^, and the formation or laying open of the 
present entrance of the cavern : from its low position so near the bot- 
tom of the valley, this entrance could not have been exposed in its 
present state, and indeed must have been entirely covered mider 
solid rock, till all the materials that lay above it had been swept 
away, and the valley cut down nearly to its present base ; and as the 
cave ends inwardly in a cul de sac, and there is no vertical fissure, or 
any other mode of access to it, but by the present mouth, if we can 
find therein any circumstances that would prevent the admission of 

* A small quantity of this loam may possibly haye been derived from dry dust that 
has fidlen firom the decomposition of the roo£ 



CAUSE OF ITS PECULIARITIES. 141 

pebbles from without, or the removal of the animal remains from 
within, the cause of the anomaly we are considering will be explained. 
By referring to Plate XVIII. it will be seen that the throat of the 
cave F, by which we ascend from the mouth e to the interior g, is 
highly inclined upwards, so that neither would any pebbles that were 
drifting on with the waters that excavated the vaUey ascend this in- 
clined plane to enter the cave o, nor would the external currents, 
however rapidly rushing by the outside of the mouth e, have power 
to agitate (except by slight eddies in the lower part of the throat f) 
the still waters that would fill the body of the cavern, and which being 
there quiescent, would, as at Kirkdale, deposit a sediment from the 
mud suspended in them upon the undisturbed remains of whatever 
kind that lay on the floor. From its low position, it is also probable 
that this vault formed the deepest recess of an extensive range of in- 
habited caves, to which successive generations of antediluvian bears 
withdrew themselves from the turbulent company of their feUows, as 
they felt sickness and death approaching ; the habit of domesticated 
beasts and birds to retire and hide themselves on the approach of 
death, renders it probable that wild and savage animals also do the 
flame. The unusual state of decay of the teeth and bones in this 
black earth may be attributed to the exposed state of this cavern, 
arising from its large mouth and proximity to the external atmosphere, 
and. to the absence of that protection which in closer and deeper 
'.caves they have received, by being secluded from such exposure, or 
fsmbedded in more argillaceous earth, or invested vdth, and entirely . 
sealed up beneath a crust of stalagmite. 



142 FISSURES AND CAVES COEVAL. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE GERMAN CAVES. 



To the &cts already enumerated in describing the pdrticukyr 
appearances in the interior of individual caverns may- be added tli^ 
following remarks, which apply generally to them all. 

1. With respect to the apertures themselves, whetiber fissures or 
caverns, they appear to have been open, and without mud or pebbles, 
atihe time when the animals lived and died, whose remains are now 
found in them. These two kinds of apertures rardy oceiur separate^ 
and many of the caves appear to be only enlargements, and hollow 
side branches shooting off from a fissure or congeries of connected 
fissures. Some of these fissures terminate upwards, like the caves, in 
the body of the rock ; others rise to the surface, and are occasionally 
open, as at Scharzfeld, but more frequently they are filled up vnth 
diluvium of the same kind as that which has universally covered the 
floor, and filled the undervaultings of the caves. 

2. The present mouths of the caves did not exist in* tiitilr actual 
state at the time when they were inhabited ; but are rather truncated 
portions of the middle and lower regions of the original cavwns, laid 
open by the diluvial waters which excavated the valleys in whose diffi 
they stand ; and which also drifted into them the mud ai^ 'pebbles. 

3. The proportion of teeth in all these caverns does not appettr 
(as at £irkdale) to be in excess, beyond that which is due to liie 
number of bones that accompany them; and this circmnstanee is 
explained by the &ct of their being principally derived from bears. 



OCCURBENCE OF BONES PARTFAL. 148 

whose habit it is not to devour the bones, either of their own^ s^>ecies^ 
or of other lai^ animals. 

4. The partial occurrenoe* of these remaini^ in so eomparatlyel}^ 
small a number of the many caves that lie adjacent to each <)ther, 
added to the immense quantities in which they are usually crowded 
together where they exist at all, shows that they were accumulated 
by some cause independent of the diluvial action that introduced the 
mud and pebbles; for had they been drifted in together with them, 
they would probably have been distributed co-extensively witk these 
latter substances, and in small quantities ; whereas, on the contrary, 
whilst we find in every cave nearly the same proportion of diluvial loam 
and pebbles, the occurrence of bones is limited to a small number ; 
and in these, they are crowded in such enormous quantities, and are 
attended with such circumstances, as are explicable only on the 
hypothesis of their having existed there before the introduction of 
the diluvium ; and in general, the deeper we descend, the more 
abundantly loaded do we find the lower regions and undervaultings 
to be, till they are entirely choked up with mud, pebbles, and bones. 

5. The mud and pebbles were not introduced at a period anterior 
to that in which the caves were inhabited; for in this case, they would 
have fi>und a separate bed at the bottom, beneath the bones, and not 
have been dispersed so equally as they are amongst them : e. ^/ we 
find the pebbles occur as abundantly at x the top, as at x. x. the 
bottom, and at l, the middle region of the great heap that lies piled 
together to the height of 25 feet in the lowest region of the cave, at 
GaiknreutL (See Plate XVII.) 

6. The angular firagments of lunestone that are found within the 



144 ANGULAR FRAGMENTS. STALAGMITE. STATE AND 

caves may have fallen from the roof either before or since the intrcK 
duction of the diluvium, according as they are placed below or above 
the stalagmitic crust that covers its surface; some of them below it 
may also have been drifted in together with the pebbles. 

7. With respect to the stalagmite, though it often occurs trans* 
fused bodily through the substance of the diluvial sediment, it is never 
found in continuous strata alternating with other strata of mud, t>i 
pebbles, but always forming a single crust on the upper sur&ce of the 
sediment. I could not find in any of the Grerman caves a lower crust 
of stalagmite formed as at Kirkdale, beneath the mud, on the sur&ce 
of the subjacent limestone rock ; but from the thickness of the dilu- 
vium, though it was in many places excavated 6 feet deep, there were 
so very few points in which it was possible to see the bottom, that at 
present we are without any evidence as to its existence or otherwise. 

8. The diluvium itself is either simply a mass of pebbles, or of 
loam or sand, or (which is more common) an irregular admixture of 
aU these three substances, having bones indiscriminately distributed 
throughout them all ; and in proportion as the mass has been more 
or less percolated by stalagmitic infiltrations, the bones are either 
simply embedded in loose earth, or in semi-indurated loam and 
pebbles, or cemented together with loam and pebbles into a firm 
osseous breccia, resembUng that found in the fissures of Umestone at 
Gibraltar, and along the shores and islands of the Mediterranean. 
Should it be suggested, that this loam or earthy matter may have 
originated from dust that has fallen firom the decomposition of the 
roof of the caverns, the improbability of this origin appears firom its 
non-agreement in chemical composition with the limestone of these 



ORIGIN OF DILUVIUM. HARMONY OF CAVES AND FISSURES. 145 

roofs ; whilst on the other hand, its perfect agreement vsdth the dilu- 
vial loam that abounds on the surface of the adjacent countries, added 
to the fact of the materials within the cave being often sorted, or 
drifted, as if by water into distinct deposits of loam, and Scind, and 
pebbles ; and the still more irresistible argument, arising from the 
almost universal presence of the pebbles themselves, renders it im- 
possible to refer the earthy matter in question to any cause acting 
exclusively within the interior of the caverns, or indeed to any other 
origin, than one violent movement of waters over the land without : 
the effects likely to have been produced by such an inundation on 
the interior of caverns having communication with the then existing 
surface, are precisely such as we find to have actually taken place, 
and to be attended by circumstances, all of which are consistent with 
the hypothesis of the mud and pebbles having been superinduced 
upon bones already existing in the caverns, by the waters of a tran- 
sient deluge. 

The facts I have enumerated in the above descriptions go to 
establish a perfect analogy, as far as relates to the loam and pebbles 
and stalagmitic incrustations in the caves and fissures of G^ermany 
and England, and lead us to infer an identity in the time and manner 
in which these earthy deposits were introduced ; and this identity is 
still further confirmed by the agreement in species, of the animals 
whose remains we find enveloped by them, both in caves and fissures, 
as well as in the superficial deposits of similar loam and pebbles on 
the surface of the adjacent countries ; viz. by the agreement of the 
animals of the English caves and fissures, not only with each other, 
but also with those of the diluvial gravel of England, and of the 

u 



146 CAVES, FISSURES, AND GRAVEL PROVE THE SAME DELUGE. 

greater part of Europe : and in the case of the German caves, by the 
identity of one of their extinct species of bear with that found in the di- 
luvial gravel of Upper Austria ; and of the extinct hyaena vsdth that of 
the gravel at Canstadt, in the valley of the Necker ; at Horden, near 
Herzberg in the Hartz ; at Eichstadt, in Bavaria ; the Val d*Amo, in 
Italy ; and Lawford, in Warwickshire. To these may be added the 
extinct rhinoceros, elephant, and hippopotamus, which are common to 
gravel beds as well as caves ; and hence it follows, that the period at 
which the earth was inhabited by aU the animals in question was 
that immediately antecedent to the formation of those superficial and 
almost universal deposits of loam and gravel, which it seems impossible 
to account for unless we ascribe them to a transient deluge, afiecting 
universally, simultaneously, and at no very distant period, the entire 
surface of our planet *. 



* I have much pleasure in referring my readers to two short and excellent papers 
in the Philosophical Transactions for 1794, Part IL, by the Margrave of Anspach and 
the ever-memorable John Hunter ; the former describing the caves of Gailenreuth, and 
the latter their organic remains^ in a manner which cannot fiul to be highly interesting to 
those who have followed me in my present description of them. 

The account given by his Serene Highness is accurate and spirited ; and it had not 
escaped him that the stalagmitic crust of the floor did not reach down to the bottom of 
the cave, but that there was a collection of what he calls animal rubbish between it and 
the actual floor of solid rock ; but he overlooks the existence of pebbles, and adopts the 
two common errors of considering the diluvial loam as animal earth, and stating that the 
bones are found sticking every where in the sides of the cave, as well as lying on the 
bottom. I have more than once explained the source of this mistake, and pointed out 
the limitation within which the assertion is to be received. 

Mr. Hunter accompanies his description of the bones with some curious speculations 
on the revolutions which may have affected the earth*s surface, and some general 
observations on the different state of preservation of fossil animal remains ; and con- 
cludes, as Cuvier has done since, with regard to the bones in the cave of Gailenreuth 



JOHN HUNTER ON THE BEARS OF GERMANY. 147 

and others, that they have been accumulated in consequence of the cavities having been 
occupied as a place of retreat, or den of wild beasts during a long series of years — his 
words are, many thousand years ; but he overrates this period considerably, grounding 
his opinion on the single fact of the different degrees of preservation of the bones in the 
same cavern. These, however, are not greater than those which exist in churchyard 
bones, or a common charnel-house, and may have been produced by the difference of a 
very few years, or certainly of a few hundred years, in the time of their exposure to de- 
composing causes at the f»ottom of the cave, before the introduction of the diluvial loam, 
which has since buried and protected them from any further considerable decay. Mr. 
Hunter's reasoning would have been correct, had there not existed this difference in the 
degree of exposure of the bones before and since the introduction of the loam : had he 
been aware of this fact, he certainly would have seen the force of it, and his expression 
would probably have been, many hundred years, instead of many thousand. I refer to 
my note on the cave of Kiihloch, and to my account of Kirkdale, for filrther grounds on 
which I have founded my opinion as to the chronolo^cal inferences to be derived from 
the quantity of animal remains accumulated in these caves, and from the state and relative 
position of their stalagmite and diluvial loam and pebbles. 



u2 



148 BRECCIA IN FISSURES ON THE SOUTH COASTS OF EUROPK 



OSSEOUS BRECCIA OF GIBRALTAR, NICE, DALMATIA, &c. 



The close connexion, or rather the identity of circumstances 
which we have seen to exist with respect to the time and manner in 
which the bones were introduced both into caverns and fissures, in 
Germany and England, leads me to think it almost certain, that those 
fissures also which are found to contain such large quantities of 
osseous breccia in the limestone rocks of Gibraltar, Antibes, Nice, 
Cette, Pisa, and Dalmatia, and nimierous other places along the 
north shores of the Mediterranean and Adriatic, and in the islands of 
Cerigo, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, &c., had become charged with these 
remains in the same antediluvian period with the caves and fissures I 
have been describing. M. Fortis, in his account of the breccia of 
Dalmatia, and some of the islands, says it occurs both in vertical 
and horizontal cavities of the limestone, and that it is visible in clefts 
and fissures along the shores, and in caves in the interior of all the 
islands and coasts of Illyria ; that the bones are usually embedded in 
a red ochreous cement, dispersed and broken, and that a single 
skeleton is never found entire. M, Provenpal repeats the same 
observations in his account of the breccia in the caves and fissures 
near Nice. M. Chevalier also says of the bones at Gibraltar, that 
they lie separate one from another, but not rolled, and that the 
greater part of them appear to have been broken before they were 
incrusted in their present cement: and M. Cuvier, in his first 



OSSEOUS BRECCIA OF TWO ERAS. 149 

editioD, has given a list of the animals of this breccia ; among which 
he enumerates the ox, deer, antelope, sheep, rabbits, water-rats, mice, 
horse, ass, snakes, birds, and land-shells. He states, also, that the 
greater number of them decidedly agree with existing species, and 
supposes them to have fallen into the fissures in the period succeeding 
the last retreat of the waters. With respect to some of these bones, 
it is probable that this hypothesis is correct, and that here, as well as 
in England, there may exist, in addition to the breccia containing 
bones of antediluvian origin, other more recent deposits, derived from 
animals which are continually falling into the comparatively few 
fissures which are still open, as at Buncombe Park ; but with regard 
to others, viz. to those which occur in fissures that are closed up, as 
at Gibraltar, to the very surface of the soil, the case is different, and 
their origin clearly antediluvian. 

In my first paper on Kirkdale I had ventured to differ from M. 
Cuvier on this subject, judging from the apparent agreement in species, 
' of many of the graminivorous animals of the osseous breccia with those 
found in the antediluvian cave at Kirkdale, and in the diluvial gravel- 
beds of England, and had suggested that the discovery in the Medi- 
terranean breccia of any of the extinct species of animals we find in 
the caves, or in diluvian gravel, would establish the higher antiquity 
I am contending for. Being at Paris in October 1822, I had the 
satisfaction to be informed by M. Cuvier, that he has lately foimd 
the tusks of the extinct Hon or tiger in the breccia of Nice, and that 
he has added other animals belonging to species now unknown, to 
the list he had before given. Mr. Pentland also has recently dis- 
covered the tooth of the same extinct tiger in the breccia of Antibes, 



150 LOAM AND PEBBLES IN OSSEOUS BRECCLV.. 

and has found in the cabinet of Professor Targioni, at Florence, the 
femur of a bear from the osseous breccia of Pisa, and has been informed 
that other similar bones occur in the neighbourhood of Sienna. I 
was still further gratified by M. Cuvier's showing me specimens fiom 
several of the places above enumerated, many of which contained 
rolled pebbles, and all of them a large proportion of indurated earthy 
loam, through which, as their matnx, the teeth and fragments of 
bones are disseminated in a manner no way different from that in 
which they occur in the indurated loam at Plymouth and in the 
caves of Germany. This loam is described in many accounts of the 
osseous breccia, as being ochreous stalactite, but this description is 
incorrect ; it is a mass of earthy loam, differing only in colour from 
that which fills the caves and fissures, and composes the superficial 
diluvial loam in Grermany ; and its consoUdated state arises from the 
stalagmitic infiltrations that have percolated its pores, and formed 
thin veins and linings of calc sinter in the innumerable crevices and 
small cellular cavities with which it is interspersed. This is precisely 
the state of much of the loam in the caves of Germany ; and in both 
cases the admixture of pebbles with angular fi*agments of limestone, 
and the irregular manner in which the bones, though evidently not 
rolled, are broken and crowded together in confused heaps, seem to 
indicate that, as I have suggested in my explanation of the bones 
and breccia at Plymouth, they have been moved within the cave or 
fissure by water, to a small distance only from the spot where they 
fell in and died, and simply broken by this removal^ but neither 
rounded or reduced to pebbles. The same waters which would thus 
drift them into irregular heaps in the bottom of the caves or fissures 



ANGULAR FRAGMENTS, WHY MORE ABUNDANT IN CAVES. 151 

may also have introduced the loam and pebbles through which they 
are in each case dispersed. The chief differences with regard to the 
Mediterranean breccia seem to consist, 1st. in the loam being red, 
instead of its more usual colour, brown ; an accident which may be 
explained by the hypothesis of its being diluvial detritus, derived 
from strata of a red colour, and which is rendered probable by the 
fact mentioned by Major Imrie, of there being, on the summit of the 
rock of Gibraltar, superficial deposits of a similar red earth, which 
from his description are clearly diluvial. 2d. In the proportion of 
angular fragments of stone being greater in this breccia than in that 
from the caverns : this may be referred to their having fallen in greater 
abundance from the sides of the fissures (whilst they were yet open), 
than from the roof of close caverns, in consequence of the greater 
exposure of the fonner to the decomposing influence of the atmo- 
sphere ; and this hypothesis is corroborated by the fact spoken of by 
Mr. Allan, in his excellent Paper on the Geology of Nice (Edin. 
Phil. Trans. voL viii. part 2), that the naked surfaces of the limestone 
rocks near Nice (which are of the same kind with that of Gibraltar), 
are broken and shattered into angular fragments, which lie on the 
surface of the mountains, and are mentioned by Saussure under the 
name of " br6che en place *.'' Sd. A third point wherein the breccia 
we are considering differs from that of the caverns is, that it contains 
land-shells. These may be considered as having fallen in from the 
sides of the fissures, together with the animals and the angular 
fragments last spoken of; whilst the depth and covered state of the 

* My own observation has presented to me many similar occurrences of loose naked 
angular fragments on the surface of many other compact limestone rocks. 



152 ANIMALS, WHY GRAMINIVOROUS. 

caves would allow no such circumstance to have occurred, in them. 
4th. A fourth difference arises from the remains being chiefly those of 
graminivorous animals ; and this is consistent with the circumstance 
I mentioned when speaking of the recent bones in Buncombe Park, 
that such animals are more liable than beasts of prey to fall into open 
fissures, from their constant habit of traversing the surface in the act 
of cropping the grass which forms their food. All these difi^rences 
may be explained on the theory I am maintaining, that the bones 
in the osseous breccia are of antediluvian origin, and coeval with the 
remains we find in the caves and fissures of Germany and England. 

M. De Luc has expressed precisely the same opinion at the con- 
clusion of his description of the bones, earth, and breccia contained 
in the caverns of the Hartz. " L'aspect de la couche d'ou Ton tire 
ces OS, ne permet pas de douter de leur origine ; eUe est la m6me 
que celle des os de Dalmatic et de Oibralter, ainsi que de tous les 
autres corps terrestres ensevelis dans les couches de nos continens.*' 
By which latter he means the bones of elephant, rhinoceros, &c. that 
occur so universally in the diluvium. — ^De Luc's Lettres Phys. et 
Mor. vol. iv. p. 90. 

Mr. Allan, in his paper just quoted, designates the earthy matrix of 
these bones as " Red indurated clay ;" and adds also, that " with the 
bones are rounded pebbles of limestone."' He also states his opinion, 
that the bones have been deposited in two distinct eras, which, I have 
no doubt, will on explanation turn out to be the same antediluvian 
and postdiluvian periods to which I have assigned respectively the 
introduction of different bones into the fissures of Plymouth and Dun- 
combe Park. ^ On the castle rock at Nice," says he, " the bones occur 



BONES IN FISSUBES AND CAVES COEVAL— MAJOR IMRIE. 158 

in two distinct states, one forming a very hard indurated breoday the 
cement of which varies from a brown colour to ahnost black ; in the 
other, they are loose^ or feebly agglutinated, by means of calcareous 
infiltrations, with fragments of limestone and sea shells *." He adds, 
there appear to be several fissures, some containing a few dispersed 
fragments of bone, and others of loose earth and stones. 

All these arguments are still further corroborated by the state of 
preservation of the Gibraltar bones, being exactly that of the bears 
bones, which occur in the osseous breccia of the caves of Gailenreuth, 
&c. ; they are white, dry, and adherent to the tongue, difierent firom 
and indicating a much higher antiquity than the postdiluvian bones 
that occur above the stalagmite crust within the German caves, or in 
the open fissure at Duncombe Park. 

But the fact of the breccia of Gibraltar (and by consequence those 
of Nice, Cette, Dalmatia, and the other places before enumerated) 
being coeval %vith that of the caverns we have been describing, is, I 
think, established beyond all doubt by the minute and careful account 
we have of it in Major Inuie's Mineralogical Description of Gibraltar, 
in the 4th vol. of the Transactions of the Boyal Society of Edinburgh, 
which is so important, that I shall here extract those parts of it which 
bear on the point before us : — << The insulated mountain, or rock of 
Gibraltar,'' says he, ^ is composed of compact limestone^ rising at its 
greatest elevation 1439 feet above the level of the sea, being about 
three miles long, and three quarters of a mile broad in its widest part, 

* This occurrence of marine shells in the looser variety of breccia may possibly be 
attributed to their haying been collected by sea birds or by men, as in the case of the 
cave of Paviland. 



154 MAJOR IMRIE'S ACCOUNT OF GIBRALTAR. 

and bounded for the most part by rugged slopes, or by predpioes ; like 
other compact Umestones, it is perforated by caverns of vast extent, 
and also by vertical fissures. The largest cavern (St. Michael's) is 
lOQO feet above the sea, and consists of a long series of caves, of 
difficult access, which have been penetrated to the distance of SOO 
feet from the first cavern, and extend still further, and abound mth 
stalactites. In this cave no bones have yet been noticed, but in the 
perpendicular fissures of the rock, and in some of the caverns (all of 
which a£K>rd evident proofs of their former communication with the 
surface) a calcareous concretion is found of a reddish brown fer- 
ruginous colour, with an earthy fracture and considerable induration, 
inclosing the bones of various animals; these bones are of various 
sizes, and lie in all directions, intermixed with shells of land snails, 
fi-agments of the calcareous rock, and particles of spar. Bones com- 
bined in similar concretions are found also in Dalmatia, the islands of 
Cherso, and Ossero, and have been described by Fortis ; and by his 
account it appears, that with regard to situation, composition and 
colour, they are perfectly similar to those found at Gibraltar, and occur 
in fissures and caves of the same species of limestone. I have traced 
(says Major Imrie) in Gibraltar this concretion firom the lowest part 
of a deep perpendicular fissure up to the sur&ce of the mountain ; as 
it approached the surface, it became less firmly combined, and when 
it had no covering of the calcareous rock, a small degree of adhesion 
only remained. 

^< At Bosia Bay, on the west-side of Gibraltar, this concretion is 
found in what has evidently been a cavern originally formed by huge 
unshapely masses of rock« which have tumbled in together. The 



BONES NOT IN THE SOLID ROCK— RECENT BIRDS' BONES. 155 

fissure, or cavern, formed by the disruption and subsidence of these 
masses, has been evidently filled up with this concretion, and is now 
exposed to full view, by the outward mass having dropped down, in 
consequence of the encroachments of the sea. It is to this spot that 
strangers are generally led to examine the phenomenon ; and the 
composition having here attained to its greatest degree of hardness 
and solidity, the hasty observer seeing the bones inclosed in what has 
so little the appearance of having been a vacuity, examines no ftirther, 
but immediately adopts the idea, of their being incased in solid rock. 
The communication from the former chasm, to the surface from which 
it has received the materials of the concretion, is still to be traced in 
the face of the rock, but its opening is, at present, covered by the base 
of the line- wall of the garrison. Here bones, apparently human*, are 
scattered among others of various kinds and sizes, even down to the 
smallest bones of birds. 

" At the north extremity of the mountain, the concretion is ge- 
nerally found in perpendicular fissures ; the miners there employed 
upon the fortifications, in excavating one of those fissures, found at a 
great depth firom the surface two skulls (not human.) This concre- 
tion varies in its composition, according to the situation where it is 
found. At the extremity of Princes Lines, high in the rock which 
looks towards Spain, it is found to consist only of a reddish calcareous 
earth, and the bones of small birds, cemented thereby. The rock 
around this spot is inhabited by a number of hawks, that in the 
breeding season nestle here and rear their young ; the bones in this 

* This error^ as to the existence of human bones in this brecda, has been since 
corrected. 

x 2 



156 BRECCIA OF TWO ERAS— RED DILUVIAL LOAM AND 

concretion are probably the remains of the food of those birds. At 
the base of the rock below Kings Lines, the concretion consists of 
pebbles of the prevailing calcareous rock. In this concretion, at a 
considerable depth under the surface, was found part of a green glass 
bottle." 

The above extracts need but little comment. The birds' bones at 
the rock of Princes Lines, and the glass bottle buried under pebbles 
at the base of Kings Lines, show that there is still going on daily a 
formation of postdiluvian breccia ; whilst the whole description of the 
earthy contents of the caves and fissures, and of the manner in which 
they are filled, is so entirely Uke that I have given of the caves and 
fissures of Germany and England, that it seems to me impossible to 
hesitate in admitting the identity of their origin. Sut the proof 
(satisfactory as it is) does not stop here ; I would attribute, in this 
case, as in the caves at Plymouth, the introduction of the loam and 
pebbles to diluvial action superinduced upon bones and angular frag- 
ments, that had fallen into the cavities whilst yet open, in the period 
preceding the last general inundation of the earth ; and in the paper 
I have just quoted. Major Imrie has supplied one of the most neat 
and convincing proofs I ever met with, that tlys same diluvial action 
has been exerted on the summit of the very mountain whose fissures 
I am contending have been filled by it. Describing the upper surface 
of this mountain, he says, ^ The uncovered parts of the rock expose 
to the eye a phenomenon worthy of some attention, as it tends clearly 
to demonstrate, that however high the sur&ce of this rock may now 
be elevated above the level of the sea, it has once been the bed of 
agitated waters. This phenomenon is to be observed in many part3 



PEBBLES ON THE SUMMIT OF THE BOCK OF 6IBBALTAR. 157 

of the rock ; it consists of pot-like holes of various sizes, hollowed out 
of the solid rock, and formed apparently by the attrition of gravel or 
pebbles, set in motion by the rapidity of rivers or currents in the sea. 
One of those which had recently been laid open I examined with at- 
tention, and found it to be five feet deep, and three in diameter ; the 
edge of its mouth rounded off, as if by art, and its sides and bottom 
retaining a considerable degree of polish. From its mouth, for three 
and a half feet down, it was fiUed with a red argillaceous earthy thinly 
mixed with minute parts of transparent quartz crystals; the remaining 
foot and a half, to the bottom, contained an aggr^ate of water-worn 
stones, which were from the size of a goose's egg to that of a small 
walnut, and consisted of red jaspers, yellowish white flints, white 
quartz, and bluish white agates, firmly combined by a yellowish brown 
stalactitical calcareous spar. In this breccia I could not discover any 
fragment of the mountain rock, or any other calcareous matter, ex- 
cept the cement with which it was combined. This pot is 940 feet 
above the level of the sea." 

Now, comparing these facts with the phenomena he had before 
described, we see that the red earth here mentioned is the very sub- 
stance which, in the caves and fissures immediately below, forms the 
dUuvial matrix in which the bones are embedded, and together with 
which they have been united by stalagmitic infiltrations into a mass 
of solid osseous breccia ; and the pebbles of quartz, agate, jasper, &c. 
lodged with this red earth on the summit of an insulated, lofty, and 
precipitous mountain of naked limestone, present a case analogous to 
the blocks of Mont Blanc granite on the limestone mountains of the 
Jura ; both being on spots from which it is impossible they could 



158 MB. PARGETER'S ACCOUNT OF BRECCIA AT GIBRAL'tAR. 

have derived their origin^ and to which they could have been trans- 
ported by no other force than that of a tremendous deluge, or de- 
bacle of water drifting them from a great distance to the place th^ 
at present occupy ; and in which, like all the other deposits of this 
grand catastrophe, they have remained ever since undisturbed, on the 
very spot on which they were cast at the time of the last great geo^ 
logical change^ by an inundation <;£ water that has affected universally 
the sm&ce of the earth. 

To the above extracts firom Major Inuie, I am enabled to add the 
testimony of another gentleman, now resident at Gibraltar, which 
has just been forwarded to me from thence by my ftiend the Rev. R. 
Curtois. As the information comes in the form of a letter to Mr. 
Curtois firom Mr. C. Fargeter, a medical officer at Gibraltar, and who 
proposes himself to publish an account of the bones they find in that 
spot, I will subjoin an extract from it, which is equally corroborative 
of my views with the account I have just transcribed firom Major 
Imrie. 

^ The bones," says he, ^ are found imbedded, 1st. in an ochreous 
sandy earth, cemented by calcareous matter, and much indurated, 
together with angular fi-agments of limestone ; or, 2nd. in a mass, 
which may be termed pudding-stone ; consisting of pebbles of white 
quartz, and of variously coloured flinty pebbles (of the same nature 
as noticed by Colonel Imrie^ as occurring in the pot-holes at the 
summit of the rock) and of limestone' ; all of them much roiinded, 
and varymg in size from minute gravel to that of a goose's egg; ma- 
rine shells, but in small number, are sometimes found with the bones 
in this mass, and all the materials are firmly cemented together ; or. 



160 BRECCIA OF FISSURES AND CAVES CONTEMPORANEOUS. 

that among the remains discovered at Tarifa, is the tusk of an 
elephant, the chord of whose curve is six feet, and that the greatest 
quantity of osseous breccia is in a cave opposite Ceuta *. 

All these circumstances concur to establish, as far as any evidence 
short of personal examination can establish, an identity of time in the 
formation of the osseous breccia, in the fissures and caves of Gibraltar, 
and the coast aiid islands of the Mediterranean, with that of the 
bones which occur in the caves and fissures of Germany and Eng- 
land ; and to show, that in each case, the period in which the animal 
remains were introduced to them was that immediately preceding 
the inundation, which superadded the mud and pebbles in which they 
are now enveloped. 

In the adjacent country of Spain, Mr. Bowles has described some 
caves at Concud, near Teruel, in Arragon, in a rock of Shelly lime- 
stone^ in which they find bones and teeth of ox, horse, ass, sheep^ 
and other animals ; some solid, and in the state of common grave 
bones, others calcined and falling to powder ; and also human bones, 
of which the cavities are full of crystalline matter. These in some 
cases lie in loose earth with roUed pebbles, in others they are united 
into blocks of hard rock, firom four to eight feet long. The details of 
Mr. Bowles's description are given by M. Cuvier, and though they are 
indistinct, it yet seems probable, that here also as at Gibraltar, and 

* The extensive alluvial calcareous rock here spoken of is the same which I have 
called diluvium, and its consoUdated state probably arises from the abundance of caka- 
reous matter which pervades it. A similar consolidation occurs in the calcareous dilu- 
vium I ha^ before mentioned as containing the bones of bears at Kremsminster, in Upper 
Austria ; and is very common in all countries, in the case of gravel beds that contain a 
large proportion of calcareous pebbles, or calcareous sand. 



BONES IN CAVES OP ITALY, STYKIA, CAENIOLA, CROATIA, &c. 161 

near Nice, we have osseous deposits of two eras, one recent and pofii> 
diluyian, the other immediately antediluvian. 

In Italy, M. Cuvier mentions several caverns containing similar 
deposits of bones, to which I am enabled to add, on the authority of 
Mr. Fentland, that the bones of ruminating animals have been found 
united by stalagmite to a breccia, like that of Nice and Antibes, in the 
Grotto Delia Molpa, at Cape Falinurus, in the kingdom of Naples ; 
and that in the Sabine Mountains, not far firom Tivoli, near the town 
of Falombaro, there is a cave in which the remains of the bear have 
been found incrusted with stalagmite, and amongst them a jaw which 
is in the collection of Professor Xl^anaU, of Perugia. 

In the gorge, at Peckaw^ in Styria, by which the Mur runs down 
from Sriick to Grats, there is a lofty verticalcliff of Alpine limestone, 
in the perpendicular face of which I observed the mouths of several 
caverns ; some of these have been found to contain also the bones of 
the great extinct species of bear. The position of these caves with 
respect to this dihivian gorge is analogous to that of the caves in the 
diffit that flank the valley of Muggendorf, in Franconia, and of the 
Avon, at Clifton. 

An account has recently been published of bones of the same kind 
of bear discovered at Adelsberg, in Camiola. And a breccia, like that 
of Gailenreuth, and containing also the bones of bears, has been found 
in the mountain of Ischuber^ in Croatia. 

For a detailed account of ftirther localities of these ossiferous 
caves and fissures, extending as they do over England, Spain, France^ 
Italy, Dalmatia, Croatia, Carniola, Styria, Austria, Hungary, Poland, 



162 PRESENT SURFACE OF EUROPE 

and Germany, I must refer my readers to the ^ Ossemens Fossiles of 
Cuvier ;' a work containing more sound and philosophical reasoning 
on the early state of our planet, and a more valuable collection of 
authentic facts relating to the history of its fossil animals of the higher 
orders, than can be found in aU the books that have ever yet been 
written upon the subject. 

In the conclusion of my account of Eirkdale, I stated, that its 
phenomena were decisive in establishing the fact, that aninials which 
are now limited exclusively to warmer latitudes, e. g. the elephant, 
rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and hysena, were the antediluvian in- 
habitants of Britain, and not drifted northwards by the diluvian cur- 
rents from more southern or equatorial regions, as had often been 
suggested, and was never till now disproved ; and I pointed out the 
inference with respect to a probable change of climate in the northern 
hemisphere, which seems to foUow from this circumstance. 

Another important consequence arising directly &om the inha- 
bited caves, and ossiferous fissures, the existence of which has been 
now shown to extend generally over Europe, is, that the present sea 
and land have not changed place ; but that the antediluvian surfiu^ 
of at least a large portion of the northern hemisphere was the same 
with the present ; since those tracts of dry land in which we find the 

w 

ossiferous caves and fissures must have been dry also, when the land 
animals inhabited or fell into them, in the period immediately pre- 
ceding the inundation by which they were extirpated. And hence 
it follows, that wherever such caves and fissures occur, i. e. in 
the greater part of Europe, and in whatever other parts of the 



WAS DRY LAND ALSO BEFOBE THE FLOOD. 163 

world such bones may be found under similar circumstances, there 
did not take place any such interchange of the surfaces occupied 
respectively by land and water, as many writers of high authority 
have conceived to have immediately succeeded the last great geo- 
logical revolution, by an universal and transient inundation which has 
affected the planet we inhabit. 



y2 



164 HUMAN REMAINS IN CAVES OF ENGLAND ALL POSTDILUVIAN. 



HUMAN KEMAINS IN CAVES. 



It was mentioned, when speaking of Gailenreuth and Zahnlochy 
that human remains and urns have been discovered there in the same 
cave with the bones of antediluvian animals, but that they are of com- 
paratively low antiquity. 

Six analogous cases have been noticed in this country in cavities 
of mountain Umestone, in the counties of Somerset, Glamorgan, Caer- 
marthen, and York ; and these also are attended by circumstances 
which indicate them to be of postdiluvian origin. 

1. The discovery of human bones incrusted with stalactite^ in a 
cave of mountain limestone at Surringdon, in the Mendip-hills, and 
mentioned in CoUinson's History of Somerset, is explained by this 
cave having either been used as a place of sepulture in early times, 
or been resorted to for refiige by wretches that perished in it, 
when the country was suffering under one of the numerous military 
operations, which, in different periods of our early history, have been 
conducted in that quarter. The mouth of this cave was nearly closed 
by stalactite, and many of the bones incrusted with it. In the 
instance of a skull, this substance had covered the inside as well as 
the outside of the bones ; and I have a fragment from the inside^ 
which bears in relief casts of the channel of the veins along the 
interior of the skull. The state of these bones affords indications of 
very high antiquity ; but there is no reason for not considering them 



FOUND AT BUREINGDON AND WOKEY HOLE. 165 

postdiluvian. Mr. Skinner, on examination of this cave, found the 
bones disposed chiefly in a recess on one side, as in a sepulchral cata- 
comb ; and in the same neighbourhood, at Wellow, there is a large 
artificial catacomb of high antiquity, covered by a barrow, and con- 
structed after the manner of that at New Grange, near Slane, in the 
oounty of Meath, of stones successively overlapping each other till 
they meet in the roof. In this were found the remains of many 
human bodies. A description of it may be seen in the Archasologia 
for 1820. 

2. Mr. Miller, of Bristol, has lately discovered the remains of human 
bodies in the much frequented cave of Wokey Hole, near Wells, at 
the south-west base of the Mendips. On hearing of the fact in 
January 1823, 1 went the next day to examine it, and found the bones 
to be placed in the most secluded and distant part of a large fissure 
that shoots off laterally from this cave, and is separated firom its main 
chambers by a subterraneous river of considerable size, that constantly 
runs through them. They have been broken by repeated dicing to 
small pieces ; but the presence of numerous teeth establishes the 
&ct that they are human. These teeth and fragments are dispersed 
through reddish mud and clay, and some of them united with it by 
stalagmite into a firm osseous breccia. Among the loose bones I 
found a small piece of a coarse sepulchral urn. The spot on which 
they he is within reach of the highest floods of the adjacent river, 
and the mud in which they are buried is evidently fluviatile, and not 
diluvian ; so also is great part, if not the whole, of the mud and 
sand in the adjacent large caverns, the bottoms of all which are filled 
with water to the height of many feet, by occasional land-floods, 



166 HUMAN BONES IN GLAMORGAN AND CAERMARTHENSHIRE. 



which must long ago have undermined and removed any 
deposits that may have originally been left in them. I could find no 
pebbles, nor traces of any other than the human bones, on the single 
spot I have just described ; these are very old, but not antediluvian. 
In another cave on this same flank of the Mendips, at Compton 
Bishop, near Axbridge, Mr. Peter Fry, of Axbridge, discovered in 
the year 1820 a number of bones of foxes, all lying together in the 
same spot, and brought away 15 skuUs. These also, like the remains 
of foxes in Duncombe Park and near Paviland, are of postdiluvian 
origin, and were probably derived from animals that retired to die 
there, as the antediluvian bears did in the caves of Grermany. 

3. Mr. Dillwyn has observed two analogous cases in the mountain 
limestone of South- Wales ; one of these was discovered, in ISOS^ 
near Swansea, in a quarry of limestone at the Mumbles, where the 
workmen cut across a wedge-shaped fissure, diminishing downv^ards, 
and filled with loose rubbish, composed of fragments of the adjacent 
limestone, mixed with mould. In this loose breccia lay, confusedly, 
a large number of human bones, that appear to be the remains of 
bodies thrown in after a battle, like those I have mentioned near 
Eirby Moorside in Yorkshire, with no indications of regular burial ; 
they were about SO feet below the present upper surface of the lime- 
stone rock. 

4. The other case occurred in 1810 at Llandebie, in Caermarthen- 
shire, where a square cave was suddenly broken into, in working 
a quarry of soUd mountain limestone on the north border of the 
great coal basin. In this cave lay about a dozen human skeletons 
in two rows at right angles to each other. The passage leading to 



HUMAN BONES AT KOSTRITZ, NEAR LEIPSIG. 167 

this cave had been entirely closed up with stones for the purpose 
of concealment, and its mouth was completely grown over with 
grass. 

5 and 6. For the particulars of these two cases I refer my readers 
to the descriptions I have abeady given of the human remains in the 
cave of Faviland^ in Glamorganshire, and in the fissure at the back of 
the parks, near Eirby Moorside, in Yorkshire. 

It is obvious, that in none of these cases are the bones referable to 
so high an era as those of the wild beasts that occur in the caves at 
Kirkdale, and elsewhere. 

The 7th and last case I shall mention is one which has re- 
cently been published, with a very able and judicious commentary 
by Mr. Weaver, in the Annals of Philosophy for January 182S; 
wherein he gives a translation of Baron Schlotheim^s account of 
hiunan bones discovered in the VaUey of the Elster, near Eostritz in 
Saxony, a few leagues south-west of Leipsig, and of which I shall 
subjoin the following abstract. The Valley of the Elster, near 
Eostritz, is flanked by hills, the summits of which are composed of 
limestone, locaUy called Zechstein, whilst the lower regions contain 
beds and large masses of gypsum. Both limestone and gypsum con- 
tain caves and fissures, which are in each case equally filled with a 
mass of loam or day of the same kind as that which covers the 
adjacent country. In this loam are various pebbles of limestone, and 
of rocks that occur only at a distance, e. g. granite, &c. The principal 
deposits of bone are in the loam which fills the cavities of the lime- 
stone : among these there occur at Politz the remains of rhinoceros' 
horse, ox, hysena, tiger (or jaguar), and bear ; they are in the same 



168 BONES AT K6sTRITZ OF TWO ERAS. 

state as the bones at Gailenreuth and Scharzfeld^ and probably of the 
same era. 

The cavities of the gypsum are very nmnerous, commmiicating 
with each other, and traversing the rock in all directions : in the loam 
which fills them the bones are dispersed irregularly in durteiBi or 
collected in heaps, without order, and at different depths, and hme 
been continuaUy discovered firom the first opening of these quarries, 
thirty years ago, to the present time. They consist cf ihe following 
animals: 

No. 1. Bhinoceros, deer, ox, jaguar, and hyasna, lihe same as in 

the limestone cavities, excepting the remains of horse. 

No. 2. Sheep or roe, fox, weasel, squirrel, field-mouse^ shrew« 

mouse, common rat, hamster rat, bat, mole (five poF# 

tions of the jaw of young ones), hare^ rabbit, bat, fio^ 

two species of owl, domestic-cock, and man. 

These bones. No. 2, occur mixed confiisedlyi not only willi one 

another, but also with the bones of the extinct animalfl ; they aU 

belong to existing species, and are in various stages of decay, but are 

less calcined than the bones of extinct animals. No. 1. Bemains 

similar to them are found also in the soil of the adjacent fields. Jsl 

one quarry (called Winters), the human bones were found dght feet 

below those of rhinoceros, and 26 feet below the sur&ce. It is highly 

probable, as M. Schlotheim himself suggests, from the admixture of 

the bones of so many species of recent animals with the humaa 

remains in the gypsum quarries, that both these are of later origin 

than those in the limestone; they appear, I think, to have been 

introduced at a subsequent period into the diluvian loam^ whidii 



HUMAN BONES POSTDILUVIAN. M. SCHLOTHEI]VrS THEORY. 169 

had before contained the more ancient bones and pebbles ; but by 
what means, or at what precise period of the postdiluvian era, remains 
yet to be ascertained. 

M. Schlotheim says, " I am far from thinking satisfactory the 
explanation I have attempted of these phenomena, and am disposed 
to con^der the human bones to be of a later epoch than the larger 
land animals of the ancient world ; all other reported cases of human 
remains accompanying the bones of beasts of prey have not been con- 
firmed on closer investigation." He dwells also on the circum- 
stance, that the limestone cavities which are situated in the hills 
contain only the remains of ancient animals, whilst ancient and 
modem bones occur mixed together only in the gypsum cavities, the 
position of which is at a lower level in a kind of basin at one of the 
lowest parts of the district. 

M. Schlotheim's hypothesis is that the ancient bones were washed 
out of the upper caves into the lower ones, and thus mixed with the 
modem bones, by a succession of floods, produced by the successive 
bursting of lakes in a higher part of the country ; I fully agree with 
him in thinking this explanation unsatisfactory. The chief point, 
however, is conceded, viz. that the human bones are not of the same 
antiquity with those of the antediluvian animals that occur in the 
same caves with them ; and thus far the case of Kostritz affords no 
exception to the general fact, that human bones have not been 
discovered in any of those diluvial deposits which have hitherto 
been examined; and in which, from the great abundance they 
contain of the remains of wild animals, that could not have existed 
in numbers sufficient to supply these remains, in a country inha- 

z 



170 HUMAN BONES TO BE LOOKED FOR IN CENTRAL ASIA. 

bited by man, it is highly improbable that they ever will be found On 
this important subject I fully coincide with the o|>inions expressed by 
Mr. Weaver, '^ that the satisfactory solution of the general problem, as 
far as it relates to man, is probably to be sought more particularly in 
the Asiatic regions, the cradle of the hiunan race ; and that another 
interesting branch of inquiry connected with it is, whether any fossil 
remains of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and hysena, exist in 
the diluvium of tropical climates ; and if they do, whether they agree 
with the recent species of these genera, or with those extinct species, 
whose remains are dispersed so largely over the temperate and frigid 
zones of the northern hemisphere**." 



* One probable reason why such remains have not been noticed in the banks of the 
rivers of Central and Southern Asia, and of Africa, may be, that in warm climates^ they 
cannot have been preserved in ice as in the higher latitudes in a state of perfection fit 
for the purposes of commerce ; and consequently, can have afforded to the natives no 
motive to collect them for sale. The absence of roads also in these barbarous coun- 
tries, and consequent non-existence of open gravel pits^ (in which such remains are 
for tile most part found in Europe), is another cause, which helps to explain the total 
ignorance in which we have so long stood, and are likely to continue, as to the presence 
or absence of bones of any kind in the diluvium of Central Asia, and Afirica. To tiiese 
we must add the utter inattention of the natives to scientific investigations, and the btai 
jealousy with which any European would be regarded who should be rash enough to 
attempt extensive excavations in search of what they never could be taught to believe 
was any thing else tiian gold. 



PLAN OF REMAINING PART OF THE WORK. 171 



PART II. 



Having thus far fulfilled my original proposal to illustrate my 
account of Eirkdale, and the caves of England, by a comparative view 
of similar caverns and fissures on the Continent, I come now to the 
second part of my inquiry, viz. the evidence of diluvial action afforded 
by the accumulation on the earth's sur&ce of loam and gravel, con- 
taining the remains of the same species of animals that we find in 
the caves and fissures, and by the form and structure of hiUs and 
valleys in all parts of the world. 



EVIDENCE OF DILUVIAL ACTION FROM THE DIS- 
PERSION OF THE BONES OF ELEPHANTS, &c 

As the fossil elephant is more generally dispersed, and has been 
more fi*equently noticed than any one of the other animals we find 
witib it in the diluvial detritus of which I am about to speak, and as 
it is peculiar to^ and may be considered characteristic of deposits c^this 

z2 



172 FOSSIL ELEPHANT, OR MAMMOTH, IS AN EXTINCT SPECIES. 

era, I shall introduce my remarks on the evidence of diluvial action 
afforded by deposits of loam and gravel with a short history of the 
remains of this animal, and of the extent to which they occur in 
England ; and with respect to the Continent, shall simply refer to 
Cuvier for proofs of their dispersion over every country, and almost 
every valley in Europe and northern Asia, as well as in North 
America. 

The fossil elephant differs from any living species of that 
genus, but approaches more nearly to the Asiatic than to that of 
Africa. Blumenbach has distinguished it by the name of elephas 
primigenius, and Cuvier of elephant fossile. The term mammoth 
(animal of the earth) has been applied to it by the natives of Siberia, 
who imagined the bones to be those of some huge animal that lived 
at present like a mole beneath the surface of the earth. 

It appears from the wonderful specimen that was found entire in 
the ice of Tungusia, that this species was clothed with coarse tufty 
wool of a reddish colour, interspersed with stiff black hair, unlike 
that of any known animal ; that it had a long mane on its neck and 
back, and had its ears protected by tufls of hair, and was at least 
sixteen feet high. 

The bones of elephants occurring in Britain had from very an- 
cient times attracted attention, and are mentioned with wonder by 
the early historians (see Harrison's Introduction to Hollingshed's 
Chronicle, ch. v. p. 17 and 21 ; also Eoger de Coggleshall, as quoted 
by Camden, Collinson's Hist, of Somerset, vol. i. p. 180, and Pkitt's 
Oxfordshire, p. 132 to 139) ; but their history was never ftdly under- 
stood till the recent investigations of Cuvier. The old and vulgar 



OLD OPINIONS AS TO ELEPHANTS' BONES IN ENGLAND. 173 

kiotion that they were gigantic bones of the human species is at once 
rented by the smallest knowledge of anatomy. The next idea, 
which long prevailed, and was considered satisfactory by the anti- 
quaries of the last century, was, that they were the remains of 
el^hants imported by the Roman armies. This idea is also refuted ; 
1st, by the anatomical fact of their belonging to an extinct species of 
this genus ; 2dly, by their being usually accompanied by the bones 
of rhinoceros and hippopotamus, animals which could never have 
been attached to Boman armies; Sdly, by their being found dis- 
jpersed over Siberia and North America, in equal or even greater 
abundance than in those parts of Europe which were subjected to the 
Roman power. The still later and more rational idea, that they 
were drifted northwards by the diluvian waters from tropical regions, 
must be abandoned on the authority of the evidence afforded by the 
den at Kirkdale ; and it now remains only to admit, that they must 
have inhabited the countries in which their bones are found. 

It was to be expected that the remains of elephant should be found 
in the diluvial gravel of Yorkshire, from the fact already established, 
that these animals inhabited the neighbourhood of Kirkdale, whilst its 
caverns were occupied by hysenas ; and accordingly, the teeth, tusks, 
jEind bones of elephants of prodigious size have been found in the dilu- 
vium at Robin Hood's Bay, near Whitby, at Scarborough, Bridlington, 
and several other places along the shore of Holdemess. As we proceed 
southwards, we continue to find them abundantly on the coast, and in 
the interior of Norfolk, Suffolk^ and Essex. The largest deposit of 
them is at Walton, near Harwich, where they lie in a mass of diluvial 
clay between high and low water mark, mixed with great numbers of 



174 EXTENT OF FOSSIL ELEPHANTS, IN ENGLAND. 

the teeth, bones, and horns of elk, stag, ox, horse, hippopotamus, and 
other diluvial animals. In the valley of the Thames they have been dis- 
covered atSheppy, the Isle of I>(^Lewishain,London,Brentford,S[ew^ 
Hurley Bottom, WaUingford, Dorchester, Abingdon, and Oxford ; also 
at Norwich, Canterbury, and Chartham, near Rochester. On the south 
coast of England they occur at Lyme Regis and Charmouth (from the 
latter place Mr. De la Beche has lately obtained a tusk nine feet eight 
inches in length); also at Abbotsbury, Burton, and Loders, near 
Bridport, and near Yeovil in Somerset. At Whitchurch, near Dor- 
chester, they lie in gravel above the chalk, and are found in a similar 
position on Salisbury Plain : in the valley of the Avon also, at Box^ 
and Newton near Bath, and in that of the Severn, at Gloucester ; and 
at Bodborough, near Stroud. In the centre of England we have 
them at Trentham, in Staffordshire, at two places mentioned by Grew 
and Morton, in Northamptonshire, and abundantly at Newnham and 
Lawford, near Eugby, in Warwickshire. In North Wales, Pennant 
mentions two molar teeth and a tusk found in Flintshire^ at Halkin, 
near the mouth of the Vale of Clwydd ; and they are not wanting, 
though they have be^i less fi^uently noticed, in Scotland and 
Ireland. In all these cases they are found in the superficial diluvial 
detritus, consisting either of gravel, sand, loam, or clay, and are never 
embedded in any of the regidar strata. 

The circumstances that attend some of these deposits require to 
be more particularly detailed. In the streets of Lcmdon the teeth and 
bones are often founds in digging foundations and sewers, embedded in 
the gravel ; e. g. elephants' teeth have been found under 12 feet of 
gravel in Gray's-Inn Lane ; and lately at 30 feet deep, in digging th^ 



FOUNI> UNDER THE STREETS OF LONDON AND OXFORD. 175 

grand sewer, near Charles-street, on the east of Waterloo Place. At 
Kingsland, near Hoxton, in 1806, an entire elephant's skull was dis- 
covered, containing two tusks of enormous length, as well as the 
grinding-teeth : they have also been frequently found at Ilford, on 
the road from London to Harwich, and, indeed, in almost all the 
gravel-pits round London. The teeth are of all sizes, from the milk- 
teeth to those of the largest and most perfect growth ; and some of 
them show all the intermediate and peculiar stages of change to 
which the teeth of modern elephants are subject. In the gravel-pits 
at Oxford and Abingdon, teeth and tusks, and various bones of the 
elephant, are found mixed with the bones of rhinoceros, horse, ox, 
hog, and several species of deer, oflen crowded together in the same 
pit, and seldom rolled or rubbed at the edges, although they have not 
been found united in entire skeletons *. 

In the Ashmolean Museum there are some vertebrae, and a thigh- 
bone of an enormous elephant, at least sixteen feet high, which are in 
the most delicate state of preservation, and were foimd in the gravel 
at Abingdon four or five years ago. In the same pit with them were 
collected also fragments of sixteen horns of deer. These bones and 
horns are extremely soft and brittle whilst wet, but harden by 
drying : they are not in the smallest degree mineralised, but retain 
less of their animal matter than those which have been laid in clay or 
loam ; they are very adherent to the tongue. About three years since 

* For a further detail of the gravel beds of Oxford, Witham Hill, and Bagky 
Wood, and of the organic remams contained in them, I must again refer to chap. xviL 
of Dr. Kidd's Geological Essays. 



176 ELEPHANT AND HIPPOPOTAMUS AT BRENTFORD. 

a large molar tooth of an elephant was dug up in a gravel-pit in one 
of the streets of Oxford, in front of St. John's College. 

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1813, is a report of the tusk 
of an elephant, nine feet long, and of other remains of the same 
animal, with those of hippopotamus, ox, and several species of deer, 
and the horn of an ox, four feet and half in length, all of which were 
found by Mr. Trimmer in the gravel of the valley of the Thames, 
near Brentford. Six tusks of the hippopotamus lay in an area of 120 
yards. At Plate XXII. fig. 5, I have copied from Lee's Natural 
History of Lancashire the entire head of an hippopotamus, found in 
that county imder a peat bog. In all these gravel beds it rarely 
happens that two bones he in immediate contact with each other, and 
in very few cases are they rounded by attrition. 

At Newnham, in Warwickshire, near Church Lawford, about two 
miles west of Rugby, two magnificent heads and numerous bones and 
teeth of several individuals of the Siberian rhinoceros, with many large 
tusks and teeth of elephants, and some stag's horns, and bones of the ox 
and horse, were found, in the year 1 8 1 5, in a bed of diluvium, which is im- 
mediately incumbent on stratified beds of has ; and is composed of amix- 
ture of various pebbles, sand, and clay : in the lower regions of which, 
(where the clay predominates), the bones are found at the depth of 15 
feet from the surface ; they are not in the smallest degree mineralised, 
and have lost almost nothing of their weight or animal matter. One 
of these heads, measuring in length two feet six inches, together 
with a smaU tusk, and molar tooth of an elephant, have, by the 
kindness of Henry Hakewill, Esq. (of architectural celebrity) been 



ELEPHANTS' AND OTHER BONES IN NORTH WALES. 177 

deposited in the Museum at Oxford. The other and larger head, 
with a tooth and leg bone of the same animal, has been presented by 
Henry Warburton, Esq. to the Geological Society of London. Of 
the remaining tusks of elephants, the Jargest is in the possession of 
G. Harris, Esq. of Kugby ; and the other of J. Caldecot, Esq. of 
Lawford. These tusks have all of them a considerable curvature 
outward towards the point, Uke those of the one found entire in the 
ice of Tungusia. By the kindness of Edward Grimes, Esq. another 
enormous semi-circular tusk, from the same place, measuring seven 
feet in length, together with a highly valuable collection of the bones 
of rhinoceros, are deposited in the Oxford Museum *. 

The remains of elephant, which I have mentioned as being found 
in North Wales, in the Vale of Clwydd, and near Dyserth, are 
attended with some peculiar circumstances : they are commonly said 
to occur in a lead mine, and so in fact they do ; but it is a lead mine 
of an unusual kind, being conducted in a bed of diluvial gravel, that 
contains pebbles of lead, as the gravel beds of Cornwall, called stream 
works, contain pebbles and sand of tin ore. Extensive lead mines 
of the same kind are worked in North America, between Lake Su- 
perior and the Missisipi. It is the only case I know in this country, 

* Many of these latter have been engraved in voL ii. part i. plate xiv. of Cuvier's 
Animaux Fossiles, from drawmgs by Miss Morland. The largest and finest head I have 
ever seen of this species of rhinoceros was sent me from Siberia by J. Prescott, Esq. 
now resident at St. Petersburg ; and I have presented it, through M. Cuvier, to the 
Museum of the Royal Garden at Paris^ where they had no head of this animal. This 
specimen is engraved in vol. ii. part i. plate xii. of Cuvier^s Animaux Fossiles^ and in the 
Philosophical Transactions for 182^^ part i. plate iii. In the British Museum there are 
two heads of the same species^ one of which was presented to the late Sir Joseph Banks 
by the Emperor of Russia. 

A A 



178 SECTIONS OF LEAD MINES IN THE GRAVEL AT CLWYDD- 

where lead is found under such circumstances in sufficient quantity 
to be worth working. It is locally called flat ore, from its occurring 
in flat or horizontal beds of graveL Its occurrence here is explained 
by the position of this gravel bed at the mouth of a valley of de- 
nudation, cut in the limestone hills of Halkin, which are fiill of lead 
veins. The gravel resulting from this destruction contains fragments 
of lead ore, mixed up with the wreck of the rock, that formed its 
matrix before the excavation of the valley. Its thickness is unusually 
great, and several mines are worked in it ; one, called Gronant Mine^ 
gives the foUowing section : 

1. Vegetable mould, two feet. 

2. Clay, mixed with some sand and rolled stones, £6 yards. 

3. Gravel beds, containing rolled pieces of lead of all sizes, eight 

yards. 
In another mine, called Tal-ar-goch, the remains of ox and stag are 
found at present : and in 1815 a pair of stag's horns were discovered 
at 60 yards below the surface^ and are now in the possession of the 
Earl of Fljrmouth at Tardebig. The section of this mine is : 

1. Vegetable mould, two feet 

2. Clay, 26 yards. 

S. Sand and gravel, 68 yards ; containing pebbles of copper as 
well as of lead. Horns, teeth, and bones, are found in it, 
at from 40 to 70 yards from the surface^ and also at the 
bottom of the gravel, in immediate contact with the subjacent 
limestone'rock. 

Another shaft dug one mile south of St. Asaph, at a spot between 
the Ebwy and the Clwydd, presented irregular alternations of clay 



REMAINS OF ELEPHANTS FOUND IN SCOTLAND. 179 

and gravel, to the depth of 88 feet. For the above particulars, as to 
these lead mines, I am indebted to the kindness of C. Stokes, Esq. 
and Robert Dawson Esq. * 

Of the occurrence of elephants in Scotland, we have the following 
evidence by Mr. Bald, in the 4th voL of the Wemerian Transactions* 
p. 58, where he Hstates, that an elephant's tusk, 39 inches long, and 13 
in circumference, and weighing 25f pounds, was found embedded 
in diluvial clay at Clifton Hall, between Edinburgh and Falkirk, in 
cutting the canal in July, 1820, at the depth of 15 or 20 feet below 
the present surface ; it was in so high a state of preservation, that it 
was purchased for two pounds, and sawn asunder, by an ivory turner 
at Edinburgh, to be made into chess men ; but the parts have been 
preserved by Sir Alexander Maitland Gibson, and an engraving of it 
is attached to the memoir by Mr. Bald. Two other tusks, of nearly 
the same size, were also discovered, with several small bones l3dng 
near them, in Jan. 1817, at Kilmaurs, in Ayrshire, near the water of 
Carmel, at the depth of ] 7^ feet from the surface, in a mass of similar 
diluvial clay. Parts of these are preserved at Eglington Castle, and 
in the College Museum at Edinburgh f. 

* I am informed by Professor Sedgewick, that being in Derbyshire in 1818, he was 
told that bones had been found in a lead mine on Bakewell Moor, nearly 100 feet below 
the surface ; and that on visiting the spot« he found the miners working in a fissure filled 
with pebbles of limestone and sandstone, large rolled pebbles of galena, and mud: 
amongst these were teeth and fragments of the bones of horses. These probably had 
been all washed together into the open fissure at the same time, when the galena pebbles 
and elephants' bones were lodged together in the Vale of Clwydd, and the rhinoceros, 
&c. washed into the Dream Cave near Wirksworth. 

-f The state of preservation of these tusks is nearly equal to that of the fossil ivory 
of Russia : those found in England are usually more -decayed. The only one I have seen 
sufficiently hard to be used by the turners was found on the coast of Yorkshire, where 

A a2 



180 ELEPHANTS IN IRELAND. HEAP OF BONES NEAR STUTGARD. 

With respect to Ireland, there is a description in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1715, by Dr. Molineux, accompanied by engravings, 
of some molar teeth of elephant found at Maghery, in the county of 
Cavan ; and the occurrence of the remains of the same large and ex- 
tinct species of elk, with that found in the diluvial clay and gravel of 
Walton in Essex, and other parts of England, is notorious and almost 
universal in the marl that lies at the bottom of the Irish peat bogs *• 

For foreign localities of the fossil elephant, I have already referred 
to Cuvier's account of places in which they have been found all over 
Europe. Blumenbach, in his Archgeologia Telluris, part i, p, 12, 
1803, states, that within his knowledge more than 200 elephants, and 
30 rhinoceroses, have been found in Germany. 

At Seilberg, near Canstadt, on the Necker, in 1816, they dis- 
covered, in 24 hours, 21 teeth, or fragments of teeth of elephant 
mixed with a great number of bones ; and soon after, in continuing 
their diggings, fell on a group of 13 tusks and some molar teeth of 
elephants, heaped close upon each other, as if they had been packed 
artificially. These were all carefully removed, in their natural position, 
with the clay in which they were embedded, by order of the King, to 
the Cabinet at Stutgard. The largest of the tusks, though it had 
lost its point and root, was eight feet long, and one foot in diameter. 
They are in good preservation, and in general curved to the amount 
of three quarters of a circle, and bending outwards. 

At the village of Thiede, on the plain, four miles south-west of 

the diluvium is very argillaceous : a portion of this tusk is now preserved in a Museum 
at Bridlington. 

* Dr. Molineux says that in the space of twenty years^ thirty individuals of the Irish 
elk have been found in the county of Meath, and three of these in the same acre of land. 



HEAP OF BONES NEAR BRUNSWICK, AT THIEDE. 181 

the town of Brunswick, a similar discovery was made in 1816, of a 
congeries of tusks, teeth, and bones, piled together in a heap of 10 
feet square, and embedded in diluvial loam that covers some gypsum 
quarries in the new red sandstone. In this small heap, (see Plate 
XXIV.) Mr. Berger, of Brunswick, found 11 tusks of elephant, one 
of them 11 feet long, another 14 feet 8 inches long, and 12f inches 
in diameter, and both curved into a perfect semicircle; SO molar 
teeth, and many large bones of elephant, some of which were five feet 
long, and one of them, according to Mr. Bieling, six feet eight inches. 
Mixed with these were the bones and teeth of rhinoceros, horse, ox, 
and stag ; they all lay mixed confusedly together : none of them were 
rolled, or much broken ; and the teeth for the most part separate and 
without the jaws : there were also some horns of stag. I have seen 
the hole from which they were taken: it remained entire in 1822, 
and no further search had been made m the loam surrounding it. I 
saw also many of the specimens in the collection of Mr. BieUng at 
Brunswick, who has published a short description, with an engraving 
of them, as they lay in the quarry. It is very difficult to account for 
this partial accumulation of various teeth and bones : they were most 
probably drifted together by eddies in the dHuvian waters ; but can- 
not have been roUed far, as they have rarely lost any thing of their 
projecting points and angles. 

A third spot in which they occur in unusual abundance is near 
Florence, in the valley of the Amo, above the gorge of Incisa. From 
this gorge, the valley widens upwards to Arezzo, a distance of 25 
miles, whilst the hills become gradually more and more contracted 



183 ELEPHANT, RHINOCEROS, &c. IN THE VAL D*AENO. 

towards its lower extremity, and would meet, but for the existence of 
the gorge cut through them, at Insica, and &om which the town has 
evidently derived its name. This gorge forms the only outlet to the 
waters of the Amo^ and appears to be of diluvial origin like that of 
the Derwent, at New Malton, and of the Weissent, near Mugg^w 
dorf; and without it, the valley above must have been a lake: 
within the last ten years, parts of the skeletons of at least a hundred 
hippopotami have been discovered here, and placed in the Museum 
at Florence. With these are found also, in great abundance, the 
remains of rhinoceros and elephant, together with those of horses, 
oxen, several species of deer, hyaena, bear, tiger, fox, wol^ mastodon, 
hog, tapir, and beaver : they are from animals of all ages, and one of 
the elephants could not have been a week old. The analogies which 
this valley and its gorge present to those of the antediluvian lake^ in 
the Vale of Pickering, and its gorge at Malton, as described in my 
account of Eirkdale, together with the resemblance of so many of the 
^nimalfi which at that time occupied these districts respectively, 
shows an identity of the antediluvian condition of Italy and England 
too striking to be overlooked ; and each assists in throwing light <m 
the state of the other, during that remote and obscure period in the 
history of our globe. For the detail of the above facts relating to the 
Vale of Amo, I am indebted to a communication from Mr. Fentland, 
who is now at Florence. 

It is, however, a rare occurrence to find the remains of these ani- 
mals collected in such great numbers on one small spot : the bones 
and teeth are more usually scattered about irregularly among the 



PRESERVATION OF ELEPHANTS IN HIQH NORTH LATITUDES. 183 

loam and gravel, and occur but seldom in entire skeletons, except in 
the fix>2en regions of Russia and Siberia. Over these countries their 
dispersion also is universal There is not, says Pallas, in all Asiatic 
Sussia, fiom the Don to the extremity of the promontory of Tchut- 
chis, a stream or river in the banks of which they do not find 
elephants and other animals now strangers to that climate. These 
are washed out by the violent floods arising from the thaw of the 
snows, and have attracted universally the attention of the natives, 
who collect annually the elephants' tusks to seU as ivory. I have 
already mentioned the elephants' teeth found by Eotzebue, in the ice- 
berg, near Behring's Straits, and the extraordinary quantity of similar 
bones and teeth of elephants and oxen in the islands of mud and ice, 
at the mouth of the Lena. For a detailed account of these, and of 
the carcase found entire in the ice of Tungusia, and which is now 
preserved at Petersburg, I must refer to M. Cuvier's Animaux Fossiles, 
or to the translation of his * Essay on the Theory of the Earth,' 
published by Mr. Jameson *. Mr. Mitchell, in his translation of this 
same essay, has shown the extent to which this extinct species of 
elephant prevails in North America. Humboldt, also, has found it 
on the plains of Mexico, and in the province of Quito. 

How is it possible to explain the general dispersion of all these 



* A translation of the account given of this animal, in the Memoirs of the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences, at Petersburg, accompanied by an engraving of the entire skeleton, 
with the flesh still adhering to the head, has been published in a small Tract of 15 pages, 
by Mr. Phillips, George-yard, Lombard-street, 1819* Its two tusks together weighed 
860 pounds. 



184 ELEPHANTS LIVED WHERE THEIR BONES ARE FOUND. 

remains, but by admitting that the elephants, as well as all the other 
creatures whose bones are buried with them, were the antediluvian 
inhabitants of the extensive tracts of country over which we have 
been tracing them ? and that they were all destroyed together, by 
the waters of the same inundation which produced the deposits of 
loam and gravel in which they are embedded. 



ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS OF TWO DISTINCT ERAS. 185 



EVIDENCE OF DILUVIAL ACTION AFFORDED BY 
DEPOSITS OF LOAM AND GRAVEL. 

It is admitted on all hands, that the surface of the earth is 
strewed over with deposits of gravel, sand, and loam, which have 
been drifted to their present place by the action of water, since the 
formation of the strata over which these deposits are irregularly 
spread. To account for these appearances, various theories have been 
suggested, all of which have been defective, from their attempting to 
refer to one common cause two distinct classes of phenomena ; viz. 
1st, the general dispersion of gravel and loam over hills and elevated 
plains, as well as valleys ; and 2d, the partial collection of gravel 
at the foot of torrents, and of mud at the mouths and along the 
course of rivers. The former of these I shall endeavour to show are 
the effects of an universal and transient deluge, the latter are clearly 
referable to the action of existing causes. I know not any work in 
which this distinction is so well and so clearly laid down as in a 
paper by Mr. Bald, (in the third volume of the Wemerian Memoirs, 
p. 123, and fourth volume, p. 58), in his account of the Clackmannan 
Coal Field ; in which he says, "The alluvial cover which rests upon the 
rocks of this district is of two very distinct kinds, which are termed 
the old and the recent alluvial covers ;" and this observation, he adds, 
applies to every district of Great Britain which he has examined : 
*^ that termed recent is found along banks of rivers and lakes, and is 
generally very fertile ; and along the Frith of Forth is in some places 

B B 



186 MR. BALITS"AEHJVIUM OF TWO ERAS IN SCOTLAND. 

90 feet deep*: it contains abundance of organic remains ci trees^ 
shells, &C.9 and is visibly forming every day : on the other hand, the 
old alluvial cover is of vast extent, occupying a large portion of the 
surface of Great Britain, is found at great heights and also under 
the level of the sea, and is of three kinds : first, sand ; second, gravel; 
third, day; the clay is sometimes mixed with sand, gravel^ and 
boulder stones, which are several tons in weight The whole is 
without horizontal divisions into beds or strata, and both lai^ge and 
small boulder stones are found mixed irregularly through every pait 
of it. In some places it attains the thickness of 160 feet ; besides 
boulder stones, it contains gravel (L e. rounded fragments) of almost 
every Mnd of rocks, and angular fragments of the adjacent rock% 
wfaidb are ofben of a softer nature than those which have been rolled 
to pebbles. It is this old alluvial cover in which the (elephants* 
tttsks are loimd;. but besides these and the bones found with them, it 
has been observed to cdhtain no other kind of organic remains ; jthe 
abjence of such remains, iatnd irregular manner in which the ma- 
teriids of dus deposit are mixed together, lead to a condusion that 
they were collected by some vicdent and sudden convulsion totaUy 
rdiiBfereni &omihe daiiy and grtidual process by which the present 
alluviumiiias been and continues to be formed. '^ 



' * It was in this allayiuiii, that the entire skeleton of a large whale, wMeh is now in 
the College Museum, at Edinburgh, was found a few years since ; it must have been 
drifted and stranded there, while this part of the estuary was under the process of fining 
up by the deposits of the present sea. The bones of whales have been found in a neaxfy 
similar position at Pentuan, in an andent estuary that is now filled up on the coast of 
Cornwall A description of the stream works at this place is given in Vol. IV. of Ae 
Geol. Trans, p. 4j04, 



^ 



MR. STRANGWArs ALLUVIUM AND DILUVIUM IN RUSSIA. 1«7 

The difference between the two species of alluvium thus clearly 
pointed out by Mr. Bald, as prevailing in Scotland, is the same which 
I have stated to exist universally over the world ; and for the purpose 
of distinguishing which, I have, in my table of the super-position of 
the strata in the British islands, proposed to limit the term alluvial 
to those partial deposits which Mr. Bald calls " recent alluvial covers,*' 
the origin of which may be referred to the daily action of torrents, 
rivers, and lakes; and to appropriate the term diluvium to those 
universal deposits of gravel and loam which he calls << the old alluvial 
covers," to the production of which no cause at present in action is 
adequate, and which can only be referred to the waters of a sudden 
and transient deluge *. 



* The Hon. Win. Strangways, in a valuable Synoptic Table of the Fonnations near 
Petersburg, published by him during his late residence in that city, has adopted the di- 
vision I am now speaking of between diluvian and postdiluvian formations ; disdngaidiiiig 
them by the name of diluvium and alluvium. He dates the commencement o£ the allu- 
tium from, the period of the retreat of the last waters that have covered the earth, and 
includes under it — ^1, Drift sand; marine^ or inland; 2, Marsh land; composed df mtid 
deporited by rivers; 8, Peat; 4, Calcareous tuf. All these formationi are referable to 
causes that are still in daily action. Under the term diluvium he includes the superficial 
gravel beds that lie indiscriminately on all strata of antediluvian origin, and are composed 
of a mixed detritus of pebbles, sand, and clay, torn down from formations of all Ages, 
except alluvial; and also the blocks of granite and other fragments of primitive and 
secondary rocks, that are scattered over the plains and low hills of that part of the north 
of Europe, either mixed with the superficial gravel, or lying insulated in situations to which 
tbty must have been drifted fit>m very considerable distances, as there is no matrix near 
them from which they could by possibility have been derived. He has omitted to men* 
tieii beds of gravel produced locally by torrents and rapid rivers, hecaxae the flat con* 
ditioii of the district on which his synoptic table is founded has allowed ho gravel of this 
kind to be transported to so great a distance from the hills or mountains, from the daily 
detritus of which it is immediately derived. 

A well digestedvand valuable comparative account of the mode of action and effect 

B B 2 



188 ALLUVIUM AT BASE OF MOUNTAIN TORRENTS. 

I have seen a good example of these two deposits in HoUand, 
in immediate contact with one another. The alluvial detritus of 



of rivers and mountain torrents, showing that the maximum of thdbr force is wholly, i^ 
competent either to excavate the main trunks of the valleys through which they floWj qr 
to produce the gravel beds that cover them at a distance from the hills and mountains 
whence this gravel has been transported, is given in chap. SO of Dr. Kidd's Geol(^oil 
Essays, and in the second Essay of Mr. Greenough's Examination of the first Princip^ 
of Geology. The same subject has been treated with equal accuracy and ability by 
M. Brongniart in the latter part of his " Histoire naturelle de I'Elau/' published in the 
14th volume of the *^ Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles,'* and separately as a small 
paniphlet, which I strongly secommend to the attention of those persons who vrish for 
correct information as to the effects produced by water upon the surface of our glob^. 

A difficulty occurs frequently along the base of a mountain chain, in marking t|ie 
exact line which separates the deposits of postdiluvian detritus, which have been and stOl 
continue to be drifted down by wintry torrents, from that gravel which is strictly of '8i» 
luvian origin. The bursting of an Alpine Lake (such as occurred in June, 1818^ in the 
valley of the Dranse in Switzerland), and the daily action of torrents and rapid rivers in 
times of flood, are competent to produce partially over a limited district, beds of gravel 
s(»newhat similar to those of the great diluvian waters. Striking examples of this kind 
are afforded in the Duchy of Venice, along the base of that part of the Alps which lies 
immediately on the north and north-west of the town of Valvasone, where the flood waters 
of the Tagliamento, the Meduna, and the Zelline, have strewed the plains to an extent of 
many miles from the base of the mountains with a beach of pebbles of enoimous breadth, 
which in summer is dry and barren, Tesembling a naked chesil bank on the sea shove. 
Similar features are presented by the Torre and MaUna torrents on the north-east of 
Udina, and by the numerous torrents that descend into the plain of JLombardy, from the 
mountains on the north of Verona and Vicenza. The Trebbia and Taro rivers also, and 
all the torrents adjacent to them, which fall into the Po from the south, near Parmaiuid 
Piacemut, cover the lands in the vicinity of their courses with a similar and annually in- 
creasing accumulation of detritus, from that part of the Apennines in which they take their 
origin. And In our own country, the small river of Avon Lwyd or Tor Vaen, which de- 
scends from the west side of the Blorenge moimtain in Monmouthshire, by the valley of 
Fontypool, presents, at the point where it leaves the mountains immediately below that 
town, a naked strand of pebbles, that is perpetually shifting and laying desolate the leiel 
regions that succeed immediately to the sudden termination of the steep and precipitooa 
mountain valley, along which the torrent has its course above PontypooL 

At the point where transverse mountain valleys fall into the great longitudinal valleyB» 



ALLUVIUM COVERING DILUVIUM IN HOLLAND. 189 



modem rivers which is so enormous in that country, never rises above 
the level of the highest possible land floods ; but beneath this level 
forms nearly the entire surface of that low and extensive flat ; whilst 
the diluvial deposits rise from beneath it into a chain of hiUs, com- 
posed of gravel, sand, and loam, which cross Guelderland, between 
the Yssel and the Rhine, from the south-east border of the Zuyder 
Zee, to Amheim, and Nymegen, and form at the latter place a cli£^ 
overhanging the left bank of the Waal, and another clifl^ of the same 
kind on the right bank of the Rhine, from Amheim to Amerongen 
on the road to Utrecht. In the districts that lie below the flood- 
level of these rivers, it is probable that there is an extensive deposit 
of this same diluvium buried beneath the alluvium, which forms the 
surface ; and the certainty of this fact has been established in several 
places, where, from the bursting of dykes, the water has made eauoBr 
vations through the alluvium into the subjacent diluvium, 



we sometimes find a considerable talus-shaped accumulation of postdiluvian grav^ par- 
tially filling up the diluvian gorge of the transverse valley^ and protruding itself to a con- 
siderable distance into the main trunk of the longitudinal valley; many striking examples 
' of iliis latter kind may be seen in ascending the passage of Mont Cenis on its western 
'Ode from Aiguebelle upwards. Here, at the termination or mouth of the transverse 
valleys that fall into the main valley of the Arc, immense talusses of gravel of modem 
origin project into the latter valley, being often incumbent on, and easily distinguishable 
Aarn^ the subjacent beds of diluvial gravel, and sometimes protruding across the great 
longitudinal valley, so as entirely to obstruct it, with the exception of a small passage 
which is kept open by the present river, in the lowest edge of the talus. I have seen also 
. timilar examples well displayed at the mouths of the transverse valleys, that fall into the 
main valley of the Kiszucza River, on the Hungarian side of the pass of lablunka, at the 
• watt extremity of the Carpathians. Deposits of this kind go on accumulating daily under 
' oar observation, and may, by careful investigation, be always distinguished from that 
gravel which is stricdy diluvian. All the cases above quoted rest on my own personal 
observations. 



190 ALLUVIUM AND DILUVIUM ON EAST COAST QP ENGLAND. 

up from it the teeth and bones of thi& extinct dephimt''^ and other 
animals, which are peculiar to that formation. 

The term alluyial has, howQver,. been hitherto applied too 
generally, not only to the diluvial and postdiluvial formations :I ani 
now speaking o^ but also to all deposits of whatever era» in the 
regular strata, that have been drifted to their present plaoe l^ the 
action of water ; and when thus used affords no kind of information 
as to the age or relatiops.Qf^^he deposit to which it is applied. 

The important distinction I l^ve been drawing between diluvian 
and alluvium is not less remarkable in the lowlands of the estuaries 
of the Thames, the Wash, of Lincolnshire, and the Humber, than it is 
in.HoUandv ,At th^ Tnouths of all these rivers, and of othen less 
important, there is a continual gain of new land^ by depositiona of 
mud and silt, analc^ous to those which form deltas at the mouth of 
the Rhine, the Po, and the Nile. On the east coast of En^and, theie 
is also a considerable addition of silt and mud on some parts, which 
is derived from extensive cliffs of diluvial day and mud, that are con- 
tinually cut away by the action of the sea in others. The history of 
deposits of this kind has been so admirably illustrated in M. Cuvi^'s 
Theory of the Earth, and the proofs he advances to show that the 
period at which they began to be formed cannot have, been excee^higly 
remote are so decisive, that, referring my rieaders to him for furtbar 
information on this subject, I proceed to consider the evidences . of 
diluvial action preceding the commencement of this alluvium, via. 

* In the Museum at Leyde.iij there is an immense os innominatom <^ an dephant, 
three feet six inches long, which was washed up in this manner in 1809f by the inuiMJUt- 
tion at Leonen, in the district of Betuwe. The head of an elephant three feet ten 
inches long was discovered in a similar manner after an inundation at Henk elnm . 



ORikVEL HAT BE TRACED TQ ITS NATIVE ROCK.; 191 

tlie histoiy of the fonnation and extent^of those deposits of loam ahd 
gravel which I have already to a certain degree marked out in traicing 
that of the elephants embedded in them^ and Which, as I have before 
Irtated, sfe of universal occurreace in this as in every other countiy; 

The loa;in itself possesses no character by which it is easy to 
^certain the source from which it has been derived, but usually varies 
witih the nature of the hills composing the adjacent districts. It is 
of immense extent on the Continent, is known in Germany by the 
dj^lktioH of << Dammerde,'' and of ^ Terrain d'attrissement" in 
F]!tfffice; and its occasional abundance on. the chalk of the north of 
finance is the cause of greater fertility in some of the dialky dktrio^ 
of that country than of our own. But the deposits of gravel cantaih 
soHd fragments, and often large blocks of granite and other rodoik 
which can be traced to their parent mountain ; the position of which 
with respect to the fragments is important, as affording a proof 0f 
the direction of the currents that drifted them to their present plaoe 
df lodgment. 

This diluvial gravel is almost always of a compound diaiacter, 
totitaining amongst the detritus of each immediate neighbourhood^ 
"tMrhich usually forms its greatest bulk, rolled fragments of rocks, whose 
native bed occurs only at great distances, and which must have been 
drifted thence at the 'time of the formation of the gravel, in wtndi 
they aie at present lodged. 

Now, if we examine with this view the eastern coast of Englandi 
we shall find that from the mouth of the Tweed to that of the 
Thames, it is covered irregularly with beds of superficial loom, or 
day and gravel, of enormous thickness, not only in the lowland dis- 
tricts, but also on the summits of lofty hills, and on the elevated 



192 DILUVIUM ON SUBOflTS AB WELL 



' *• 



table lands of the interior : e. g. on the north of Bridlington there 
are beds^ of this kind forming a cfqp, on the chalk hills and difib he* 
tween that town and Flamborough Head ; they are also found, in a 
similar position, between Flamborough Head and Filey Bay, as well 
as on the top of the cli£& near Scarborough, and on the north of Tyne* 
mouth. They also occupy the whole coast of the Holdemess part of 
Yorkshire and the coast of Lincolnshire, and form the entire district 
between the sea and the wolds of these two counties. They abound 
still further on the shores of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex, forming 
along all this coast difBs that overhang the sea, and are undergoing a 
perpetual destruction by the waves, so that many viUages have been 
lost, and the groimd on which they stood reduced below the level c^ 
the present sea*. In the interior, they are spread widely over the 
table-lands of Suffolk and Norfolk ; and in the north cover much of 
the country between Newcastle and Tynemouth, and between Stock** 
ton-on-Tees and Darlington f. 

Their most opoiimon character in the localities here enumerated 
is that o£iMb||||w day, through which are dispersed irregularly 

* . . » J* - • 

fpdl^blM-'dr;i;f^ kinds,^ together with the bones of elephants 
lOidotlaer Milmals before spoken of. The pebbles are of two classes^ 
1. composed of the wreck of the adjacent inland districts of England ; 
^. large blocks and pebbles of many varieties of primitive and tran? 
sition rocks which do not occur in England, and which can only be 
accounted for by supposing them to have been drifted from the 

* See Mr. Ghreenougb's Geological Map for the names of lost Tillages all along die 
east coast of England. The old church-yard at Walton, in Essex, is at this time (1898)^ 
under the process of being cut away. It will, in a few years, be wholly destroyed. 

f It is well displayed in the quarries where the great Whin dyke crosses the Tees, 
a few miles aboVe Stockton. 



NORWEGIAN PEBBLES ON THE EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 19S 

nearest continental strata of Norway, by a force of water analogous 
to, and contemporaneous with that which drifted the blocks of Fin-^" 
land granite over the plains of Russia*, and the North of Germany. 
A diluvial current from the North is the only adequate cause that 
can be proposed, and it is one that seems to satisfy all the conditions 
of our problem. 

The pebbles of iridescent felspar, like that of Labrador, which are 
found on the coast near Bridlington, and resemble similar fragments 
near Petersburg -f-, can only be referred to the primitive districts of the 
most northern parts of Europe. Many of the other pebbles of the 
English coast can be identified with rocks that are known to exist in 
Norway, and must have been drifted hither at the time of the de- 
position of the masses of clay and gravel through which they are dis- 
seminated ; it is impossible to refer them to any action of the present 
sea, because they occur on the high table lands of the interior as weU 
as on the coasts, and because the cliflfs themselves, being composed of 
clay mixed with the pebbles in question, are undergoing daily destruc- 
tion, and receive no addition from the action of the present waves. 

These foreign (and probably Norwegian) pebbles on the coast of 
England are mixed up with the wreck of the hills composing the in- 
terior of each district respectively ; and the component fragments of 

* The enormous block of granite which forms the base of the celebrated statue of 
the Czar Peter, at Petersburg, was one of these drifted masses that lay on the marshy 
plain n&ar that city, whence it was moved to the town on rollers and cannon balls whilst 
the ground of the marshes was hardened with ice. 

f The Duke of Devonshire possesses a magnificent block of this kind of felspar^ 
which was found a few years since in the bed of the Neva whilst his grace was at Peters- 
burg. I saw it at Chatsworth in 182 1, when it had been judiciously sawn into most 
beautiful slabs^ each of sufficient diameter to make a small table. 

C C 



194 WRECK OF EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD MIXED WITH THEM. 

the latter are less rolled and more angular than those which have 
come from the Continent : thus in the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk^ 
Lincoln, and Yorkshire, the dUuvium contains a large proportion of 
fragments of chalk and chalk-flints, which might have been derived 
j&om the immediately subjacent strata of chalk, or their continuation 
across the German Ocean by the Dogger Bank to Denmark ; whilst 
in the counties of Durham and Northumberland there are no remains 
of chalk, but a similar admixture of the wreck of strata that compose 
the coal formation of these counties, with Scotdb, Norwegian, and 
Swedish rocks. In the diluvium of the numerous valleys of York- 
shire, that unite to fall into the Humber, there is a similar admixture 
of the debris of strata composing the adjacent country, with rounded 
fragments of distant rocks ; and in the county of Durham I collected, 
within a few miles on the north of Darlington, pebbles of more than 
20 varieties of slate and greenstone rocks, that occur no where 
nearer than the Lake district of Cumberland. In the street at Dar- 
lington, at the north end of the town, is a large block of granite, of 
the same variety with those at Shap, near Penrith. Blocks of the 
same granite lie also in the valley of Stokesley, and in the bed of the 
Tees at Bernard Castle, and near the highest points of the pass of 
Stainmoor Forest. Similar blocks are found also on the elevated 
plain of Sedgefield, on the south-east of Durham. In all these places 
they are mixed with rolled masses of various kinds of green-stone, 
and porphyry. 

The nearest point from which these blocks and pebbles could pos- 
sibly have been derived is the Lake district of Cumberland ; and the 
only place in England where this peculiar kind of granite occurs in 



GRAVEL NEAR NEWARK, DERBY, AND LITCHFIELD. 195 

situ is the neighbourhood of Shap, just mentioned, from which they 
are at present separated by the lofty ridge and escarpment of Cross 
FeU and Stainmoor Forest. If the diflSculty of transporting them 
over this barrier be thought too great, the only remaining solution 
will be that they have come from Norway, like the other pebbles 
before mentioned, as abounding in the diluvium of the whole east 
coast of England. 

In the valley of the Trent, north-east of Newark, I have noticed 
a similar admixture of pebbles of primitive and transition rocks, with 
rounded and with angular chalk flints, that may have come from the 
wolds of Lincolnshire. At CheUaston also, on the south of Derby, 
higher up in the same valley, I found the gypsum quarries to be 
buried beneath a thick bed of diluvial clay, through which are dis- 
persed angular fragments of lias, ooUte, hard chalk, and chalk flints, 
drifted from no great distance, and confusedly mixed with highly 
rolled pebbles of quartz, and other transition rocks. 

Mr. Farey, in his Agricultural Eeport of Derbyshire, gives a long 
and interesting list of the deposits of gravel in that county, from 
which it appears, that fragments of all the English formations, from 
granite upwards to chalk, are accumulated abundantly in the form of 
diluvial gravel in that midland part of England, and I have myself 
found plenty of chalk flints in the gravel pits three miles north-west 
of the town of Derby. 

It is mentioned, in a paper by Mr. Aikin, on the gravel at Litch- 
field, in the 4th vol. of the Geological Transactions, that he found 
near that town pebbles of granite, syenite, greenstone, schist, lime- 
stone, quartz, chalcedony, and homstone : amongst these the pebbles 

c c 2 



196 GRAVEL OF LEICESTER, RUTLAND, AND WARWICKSHIRE. 

of coralline limestone are most abundant, and like those of homstone 
appear to have been derived from the mountain limestone of 
Derbyshire. 

The Kev. W. D. Conybeare has noticed in the foUowing terms 
the superficial gravel beds of the midland districts of Leicester, Rut- 
land, and Buckinghamshire. 

" The gravel accumulated in the midland counties of England," 
says he, " is worthy of much more attention than it has hitherto re- 
ceived. These accumulations extend over the plains that lie between 
the north-west escarpment of the great oolite chain, and also over 
the low tract between these hills and the north-west escarpment of 
the chalk of Bucks, Herts, and Bedfordshire ; but they are more par- 
ticularly abundant in the former position, where extending many 
fathoms in depth, they often effectually conceal the subjacent strata, 
and sometimes by their acervation constitute decided hills. Tracts 
of this description are particularly abundant on the borders of But- 
land, Warwick, and Leicestershire. From Houghton on the Hill, 
near Leicester, to Braunston, near Daventry, proceeding by Market 
Harborough and Lutterworth, the traveller passes over a continuous 
bed of gravel for about 40 miles. Near Hinckley, great depositions 
of gravel, probably connected with this mass, are found, and afford 
pebbles containing specimens of the organic remains of most of the 
secondary strata in England. This deposition may probably be traced 
continuously to that of Shipstoli-on-Stour, most of the hillocks scat- 
tered over the lias and red marl tract, between Southam and Ship^ 
ston, being crowned with this gravel. 

" These accumulations of pebbles, promiscuously heaped together, 



CHALK FLINTS IN CENTRAL COUNTIES. 197 

are composed of the wreck of rocks of the most distant ages, and 
which exist in their native state only in distant quarters of the island. 
Flints from the chalk formation, accompanied by rounded masses of 
hard chalk, and fragments of the different oolite rocks, seem, how- 
ever, decidedly predominant in Leicestershire ; and next to these in 
quantity are the granular quartz rock pebbles, resembling those from 
the Lickey, with others of white quartz, and dark coloured hard 
flinty slate. It would, however, be not difficult in many places, as 
for instance on the west of Market Harborough, and in the Valley of 
Shipston-«on-Stour, to form almost a complete geological series of 
English rocks from among these rounded fragments, which often 
occur in boulders of very considerable size. 

^ The immense quantities of chalk flints which are scattered in 
this gravel at such a distance from the present limits of the chalk, 
seem decisively to indicate that this formation once occupied a much 
wider space than it does at present. A remarkable example of this 
kind may be seen near Northampton, in the gravel used for roads in 
Earl Spencer's Park at Althorp, which is dug in the adjoining parish 
of Great Brington, and in which there is a large proportion of chalk 
flints. Near Sywell also, six miles north-east of Northampton, on 
the oolite formation, there are some fields as thickly strewed over 
with fragments of pure white chalk, as the surface of stony arable 
land is usually with the substance of the subjacent rock. And in the 
south of Derbyshire, chalk flints are commonly found dispersed over 
the surface of the country." 

The accumulations of gravel on the low grounds along the valley 
of Buckingham and Bedford are principally composed of fragments 



198 GRAVEL OF CAMBRIDGE, AND OF VALLEY OF THE THAMES. 

of the neighbouring rocks of oohte and chalk, with an occasional ad* 
mixture of quartz and other pebbles from the central counties. The 
latter occur also in Wliittlebury Forest near Northampton, and at 
Brackley. The late Sir Joseph Banks informed me he had observed 
pebbles of porphyry in the road gravel on the north side of the town 
of Dunstable. There is no nearer place from which these latter could 
have been derived than the porphyritic rocks of Charnwood Forest, 
in Leicestershire. 

Professor Sedgwick has ascertained, that the gravel beds on the 
summit of the Gk>gmagog Chalk Hills, near Cambridge, and on the 
hills adjoining towards Bedfordshire, as well as that in the valleys, 
contain not only the wreck of chalk strata, but also fragments of 
almost every formation that occurs in England ; amongst them he has 
found the joint of a basaltic pillar, between one and two feet long. 

Another striking example of a similar kind is afforded by the 
gravel of the valleys of the Thames from London to Oxford, and of 
the Cherwell and Evenlode, that fall into the Thames from the 
northern parts of Oxfordshire. (See Plate. XXVII.) I shall subjoin, 
in an appendix, a detailed account of this gravel, and of the state of 
the hiUs and vaUeys over which it is dispersed, extracted from a paper 
I have published on the Lickey HiU, in the 5th vol. of the G^eological 
Transactions. Its phenomena are in perfect unison with all the other 
cases I have been examining, and show the effect of a violent rush of 
waters from the north, which has drifted pebbles of quartz rock from 
the plains of Warwickshire, and other central counties, over the whole 
country intermediate between them and London, along the line of 
these three rivers ; and has mixed them up in each district with the 



GRAVEL AND BOULDERS IN THE WEST OF ENGLAND, 199 

angular and slightly rolled detritus of the adjacent hills^ so that we 
have pebbles of the porphyry and greenstone of Chamwood Forest, 
at Abingdon, and Oxford ; and pebbles of the rocks near Birmingham, 
at Henley and Maidenhead, and in Hyde Park. 

It appears then we have evidence, that a current &om the north 
has drifted to their present place, along the whole east coast of 
England, that portion of the pebbles there occurring, which cannot 
have been derived from this country ; a certain number of them may 
possibly have come from the coast of Scotland, but the greater part 
have apparently been drifted &om the other side of the German Ocean. 
It appears also that there are proofs of a similar current having passed 
over the central and south-eastern parts of England ; and if we 
examine its western side, we find similar evidence of a violent rush 
of waters from the north, in the pebbles and blocks of granite and 
sienite of a very peculiar character, that have been drifted from the 
Criffle Mountain in Galloway, across Solway Frith, to the north base 
of the mountains of Cumberland, where I have seen them at a spot 
called Shalk, between Ireby and Carlisle ; whilst pebbles and large 
blocks of another kind of granite have been drifted in still greater 
numbers from Eavenglass, on the west of Cumberland, over the plains 
of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Stafibrdshire : their course is marked in 
Mr. Greenough's map of England, and they lie in masses of some tons 
weight on the west of the towns of Macclesfield and Stafford, and 
between Dudley and Bridgnorth. 

In an appendix, I shall subjoin the details of the evidence we 
find in the south-west of England, to show the excavation of valleys 
along the coast of Devon and Dorset, by the denuding force of the 



200 VALLEY AND GRAVEL OF SOUTH-WEST OF ENGLAND. 

same diluvian waters, whose effects we have been tracing in the eastern^ 
western, and central parts of the island. The breadth and depth of 
these valleys, from Sidmouth to Bridport, may be seen, by reference 
to the views of their termination in the coast, at Plate XXV. whilst 
their origin and extent in the interior are marked in the map at 
Plate XXVI. The highest summits of this district are also strewed 
over vnth rolled pebbles of quartz, that must have come from some 
distant part of the country, before the excavation. of the valleys that 
now intersect it, and probably at the same time with, and by the 
agency of the same inundation from the north, which has drifted 
southwards the pebbles I have already traced over so large a portion 

of England. 



DILUVIAL PEBBLES AND CLAY ON CAMPSEY HILLS. 201 



PROOFS OF DILUVIAL ACTION IN SCOTLAND. 



I will now proceed to consider the evidence we have, of a similar 
inundation producing similar effects in Scotland. 

Colonel Imrie, in his Geological Account of the Campsey 
Hills, published in the second volume of the Transactions of the 
Wemerian Society, page 35, has described a series of phenomena 
resulting from diluvial action, in the southern district of Stir- 
lingshire. 

He refers the removal of certain portions of the trap-rocks, which 
generally form the incumbent stratum of the Campsey district, to the 
effect of heavy and rapid currents of water, and finds many parts 
of their actual surface to be strewed over with an admixture of 
drifted clay and rolled pebbles, analogous to that which occurs along 
the east coast of England from Essex to Northumberland, and to bear 
marks of violence from the friction of heavy masses of stone that have 
been drifted over it. 

" In all situations of this district," says he, " where the trap has 
disappeared, the vegetable or surface soil rests upon a strongly 
tenacious blue clay, much mixed with water- worn stones, and this 
blue clay rests upon sandstone. Among the water- worn stones 
imbedded in tlie clay, I seldom found specimens of the native rocks 

D D 



202 VALLEYS EXCAVATED. SCRATCHES ON SURFACE OF ROCKS. 

of the district : those which I examined consisted mostly of rocks, 
generally deemed of the oldest formations, such as quartz, por- 
phyries, granites, &c. ; the native beds of which are far distant to the 
north and west of that part of the country. 

" The disappearance of the trap in some of the glens and 
narrow vales seems to have been produced by the attrition of 
heavy bodies, set in motion by a great force of water in rapid 
movement. 

" In some of the glens and narrow vales where the trap had not 
entirely disappeared, I perceived upon its surface strong indications 
and marks of attrition. In some places the surface of the trap was 
smooth, and had evidently received a considerable degree of polish ; 
and this poUsh is almost always seen marked by long lineal scratches. 
In other places there appeared narrow grooves, apparently formed by 
the rapid movement of large masses of rock having swept along its 
surface. 

"In the eastern part of the district there occurs a small 
elevated plain, slightly undulated. Here the surface of the trap 
in some places had lost its covering of soil, and was left bare for 
inspection. Upon this plain I again detected some of these 
scratches. Upon the surface there were scattered immense masses of 
trap, which, from their apparent weight, seemed perfectly capable of 
forming these scratches and grooves above described, had they been 
put in motion and impelled along the surface. Upon examining 
some of these huge masses, I found their surfaces scratched and worn 
in such a way as to prove sufficiently indicative to me, that they had 



SIR J. HALL. PEBBLES AND SCRATCHES NEAR EDINBURGH. 203 

been long subjected to attrition in water ; and I also observed, that 
many of them presented their principal or most projecting angle 
towards the west, and sometimes towards the north-west ; which, ac- 
cording to my opinion, strongly implies the direction of the current 
which left them in the position in which they now rest. It is not 
the object of this paper to dip into the causes of these phenomena ; 
but that such currents, as were capable of the effects which I 
have endeavoured to describe, have overflowed the surface of our 
globe, is to me clearly evident ; and these scratches and grooves 
here mentioned are some of the minor, but clear proofs of its 
action." 

In a very able and ingenious paper by Sir James Hall, in vol. vii. 
of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he has 
recorded his discovery of similar traces of the action of a mighty 
current on the surface of the hills and valleys near that city. These 
districts are not only strewed over with the gravelly wreck of rocks 
that have been drifted to a great distance from their native bed by 
the force of violent waters ; but Sir James has also observed channels 
and furrows, which he calls dressings, still remaining on the surface 
of the hard rocks over which these waters passed, driving before 
them blocks and fragments of every substance that lay in the line of 
their course, and also excavating deep valleys. Where a mass of 
rock has been followed underground to where its surface has been 
protected by a covering of clay, it is found to resemble a wet road 
along which a number of heavy and irregular bodies have been 
recently dragged ; indicating that every block that {)assed had left 

D D 2 



204 EFFECT OF AN INUNDATION ON COSTORPHINE HILL. 

its trace behind. Occasionally the scratches deviate from the general 
direction, but the majority agree in parallelism with each other, and 
with the general direction not only of the scoops and grooves of the 
rock upon which they occur, but also of the ridges and large features 
of the district. The shape of many of the valleys, moreover, is 
exactly similar to that of those we see excavated by water on a sand- 
bank in a running brook ; whilst the form and relative position 
of the hills resemble those presented by the residuary portions 
of the same recent sand-banks in which the brook cuts out its little 
furrows. 

In a small map of the immediate neighbourhood of Costorphine 
Hill, on the west of Edinburgh, he gives in detail fifteen examples, 
within a circle of two miles in diameter, each exhibiting both the 
large and small features which indicate the action of water flowing 
with violence along the surface, and carrying large blocks of stone 
along with it, and points out many others in the adjacent country ; 
and after showing that it is quite impossible to refer these effects to 
any causes now in action, arrives at the following conclusion. " AU 
the diluvian facts in this neighbourhood that have come under my 
observation concur in denoting one inundation, overwhelming the solid 
mass of this district, this inundation being the last catastrophe to 
which it has been exposed." 

The direction of the current producing these effects in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Edinburgh has been from the west, 
and seems to have been influenced by the local circumstances of the 
hills enclosing the estuary of the Forth ; but in the neighbourhood 



MAIN CURRENT IN SCOTLAND FROM THE NORTH-WEST. 206 

of Stirling, and on the east coast of Berwickshire, and generally 
where deviations have not arisen &om local causes, it appears to 
have been from the north-west*. 



* The whole of this paper is so very accurate and satisfactory, that I strongly 
recommend the perusal of it to the attention of every one who has the smallest doubts as 
to the evidence there is to prove that the surface of the earth owes its last form not to 
the gradual action of existing causes, but to the excavating force of a suddenly over- 
whelming and transient mass of waters. 



206 SCRATCHES NEAR LLANRWST. GRAVEL IN SOUTH WALES. 



EVIDENCE OF DILUVIAL ACTION IN WALES. 



In North Wales Mr. Underwood has noticed a similar effect of 
diluvial scratches and scorings on the surface of the slate-rock, where 
it is immediately covered with a very thick bed of gravel, in a section 
of the new Irish road at Dinas HiD, about one mile east of Bettws y 
coed, near Llanrwst, and about a mile and a half east of the bridge 
called Waterloo Bridge. It is a case completely similar to those I 
have quoted from Sir James Hall, and Colonel Imrie. 

The deposits of gravel I have already mentioned in the Vale of 
Clwydd, and the valleys excavated in the hiUs adjacent to it, are 
equally of diluvial origin; and the whole low country of South 
Wales, from the estuary of the Severn for several miles inland, is 
strewed over irregularly with large boulders and beds of gravel, 
derivative by diluvial actions from the mountains that flank this 
district on the north*. The surface and sides of these mountains 
are also intersected by very deep and narrow vaDeys of denudation ; 
a good example of which is afforded by the valleys of the Tafl^ the 
Ebwy, and the Neath. 

♦ Neai* PenDergare, in the parish of Langerelach, about 5 miles north of Swansea, 
Mr. Dillwyn pointed out to me large blocks of mountain limestone, some of them 6 feet 
square, in the midst of gravel, which is chiefly composed of the debris of coal measures. 
The nearest limestone rock on the north of this spot, is at the distance of 10 miles. 



VALLEYS EXCAVATED IN THE NORTH ANI> EAST OF IRELAND. 207 



EVIDENCE OF DILUVIAL ACTION IN IRELAND. 



With respect to Ireland^ I shall adduce a few facts only, to show 
that it presents diluvial phenomena altogether identical with those 
in England and Scotland. 

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1808, Dr. Richardson has 
pointed out the effect of mighty currents of water in excavating 
valleys, many hundred feet deep, in the county of Antrim, and 
adjoining parts of the north of Ireland; and Mr. Weaver, in his 
very valuable Memoir on the Gteology of the East of Ireland, in the 
fifth volume of the Geological Transactions, p. 294, has discussed 
with his usual accuracy the subject of the excavation of valleys, and 
the gravel produced by denudation in the counties of Wicklow and 
Wexford. 

" It seems impossible," says he, " to consider the form of any con- 
siderable portion of the surface of the earth, or to reflect even upon 
the nature and disposition of its alluvial tracts, without recognizing 
the powerful agency of an agitated fluid in a state of retrocession. 
The abrupt and curved outlines, the fractured surfaces and de- 
nudations of extensive tracts, the sinuosities of glens, defiles, and 
valleys, the salient and re-entering angles, the plains, all betray its 
course and moulding force. To ascribe such appearances to a 
gradual degradation produced by the influence of the atmosphere 
and the current of streams, seems to be assuming causes wholly 



208 BLOCKS OF GRANITE AND LIMESTONE GRAVEL. 

inadequate to such effects/' '^ The flanks of the central part of the 
mountain chain of Wicklow and Carlow are strewed with native 
debris ; and these are dispersed over lower ranges for a distance of 
some miles from the central group, and sometimes under circum- 
stances that claim particular attention. Cronebane Hill (being com- 
posed of slate) bears upon its summit a boulder of granite (called 
motty-stone) 9i feet high, and 42 feet in circumference, and the 
sides of the hill are also strewed with boulders of granite nearly as 
large. How then did these attain their present position? The 
nearest granite rock is that which extends from the eastern bank of 
the Avonmore, towards West Aston Hill ; but this is rery dissimilar 
in aspect to the granite boulders on Cronebane. The next granite 
in point of distance is that of Ballincarrig, on the banks of the 
Avonbeg; yet in both these instances the granite rock is found 
in a situation several hundred feet lower than the summit of 
Cronebane." 

" Whence are the limestone, gravel, and marl derived, which we 
find distributed along the coast of the counties of Wicklow and 
Wexford? The nearest visible limestone rock in the northern 
quarter is that which occurs at Wiiliamstown and Booterstown, on 
the southern side of the bay of Dublin ; and to the southward, the 
first rock of this description that appears is on the south coast of the 
town of Wexford.'' 

After describing other phenomena of the same kind, he proceeds : 
" It is worthy of observation, that many of these deposits of lime- 
stone pebbles, gravel, and marl, are situated at distances from two 
to ten miles from the nearest part of the continuous calcareous tract. 



RIDOES OF GRAVEL ON LIMESTONE PLAINS OF IRELAND. 209 

and at an elevation reaching to two, three, and four hundred feet 
higher than the existing surface of the Umestone rock itself/' 
^ The limestone field also abounds in rolled calcareous masses, 
pebbles, gravel, sand, and marl, often raised into hillocks or long 
extended ridges, which seem to owe their form to the action of eddies 
and currents. There is scarcely any part of the extensive Umestone 
tract in the centre of Ireland, that is not more or less marked by 
them. Sometimes these ridges appear like regular mounds, the work 
of art, forming a continued Une of several miles in extent: that 
which passes by Maryborough, in the Queen's County, is a remarkable 
instance of this kind; and similar mounds, hillocks, and ridges, 
occur also in the counties of Meath, Westmeath, Kildare, Carlow, 
and other portions of the limestone field, in which the calcareous 
gravel and sand frequently exhibit a stratified disposition, the alter- 
nate layers being very distinct from each other.*' — Further details 
as to these ridges of limestone gravel may be seen in the Irish Bog 
Reports. 

It is needless to adduce further evidence than this to show the 
efiects of diluvial action to be as unequivocally displayed in Ireland 
as in other parts of the British Islands. I do not recollect to have 
seen in England examples of such distinct and lofty ridges of 
diluvial gravel, as those in the limestone plains of Ireland, excepting 
in the level district of Holdemess, on the east coast of Yorkshire. 
Here there are similar ridges, known locally by the name of barfs, 
and composed chiefly of rolled chalk flints, and a few primitive 
pebbles (apparently Norwegian). The most remarkable of these is 
near Bransburton, on the north-east of Beverley : it stretches across 

£ E 



210 GRAVEL RIDGES IN HOLDERNESS AND NORTHUMBERLAND. 

the plain like a vast chesil-bank on the sear-shore^ being about 50 feet 
high, and 100 broad at the base, and nearly a Airlong in length, and 
has at first sight the appearance of an artificial military mound of 
enormous magnitude : it bears marks of having been applied to mi- 
Utary purposes, but is clearly of dUuvial origin. 

There is also in the county of Northumberland a similar narrow 
ridge of dUuvial gravel, resembling a long military vallum, which runs 
some distance, nearly parallel to the great north road, a few miles on 
the north of Alnwick ; it is on nearly the highest point of an elevated 
plain, and is intersected near its south extremity by the public road, 
and in several other places by gaps that have been cut throng it to 
enter the adjacent fields. I hope hereafter to be enabled to give a 
more detailed account of this gravel bank, which I expect to receive 
from my friend W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. of Wallington. 



DILUVIAL GRAVEL IN FRANCE. 211 



PROOFS OF DILUVIAL ACTION ON THE CONTINENT. 



M. Cuvier and Brongniart, in their Geological Map of the Basin 
of Paris, show that the actual form and position of many of the hills 
in this district, especially on the side of Fontainbleau, where they 
stand insulated, and in rows parallel to the main direction of the 
vall'jy of the Seine^ can only be referred to the denuding force of a 
transient mass of waters. To the same waters must be referred also 
the pebbles of granite, and other distant primitive rocks that occur in 
this same neighbourhood, mixed with the wreck of the adjacent hills ; 
and I must again refer my readers to M. Brongniart's excellent 
treatise on the natural history of water, in the 14th vol. of the Dic- 
tionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, for further and abundant evidence 
of a violent deluge having produced the actual form of the hills and 
valleys, and superficial deposits of loam and gravel that occur in France. 
In Buffon's History of the Epochs of Nature^, we find his description 
also of the state of the valleys in France, and of their fonns, as derived 
from the excavating force of a mass of waters, to be in perfect har- 
mony with those of the other authors I have been just quoting. 

In Italy M. Brongniart has described the summit of the Superga, 
near Turin, to be covered with blocks of serpentine^ and accu- 

• Vol. Xn. p. 169, Deux Pont edit. 1782. 

E E 2 



212 DILUVIAL BOULDERS IN ITALY AND SWITZERLAND. 

mulations of sand and gravel (which he calls ^^ terrains de transport 
anciens/' as compared with the postdiluvian detritus of the floods of 
modem rivers), reposing on the regular strata of that steep and 
almost insulated mountain. These blocks can only have arrived 
at their present place by being drifted from some part of the distant 
Alpine chain that encircles the upper extremity of the valley of 
the Po. 

De Saussure has recorded a valuable series of observations on the 
effects of what he calls the debacle, or breaking up and transport 
of massive rocks and gravel, by an enormous rush of waters, in 
Switzerland. The most remarkable of these is the transport of 
blocks of granite from Mont Blanc * to the Jura Mountains, across 
the space which is now the Lake and Valley of Geneva. These 
eflfects appear to be only a larger example of that same diluvial 
action which we have been tracing in other countries ; and which 
has operated in Switzerland on a scale proportionate to the mag- 
nitude of the Alpine masses on which it had to exert itself. For 
the detail of these effects, I must refer to Saussure's own descriptions, 
and to Sir James Hall's excellent paper in the Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Transactions, before quoted ; in which he offers some very 
ingenious and not improbable conjectures, as to the manner in 



* These blocks lie on the Jura Mountains, at an elevation of 2000 feet above the 
Lake of Geneva. Their size in some cases amounts, as in the Valley of Monetier, upon 
the Saleve Mountain, to 1200 cubic feet ; and in the case of those on the Coteau de 
Boissy to 2S50, and even to 10,S96 cubic feet, which is the measure of the block called 
Pierre k Martin. 



VALLEYS OF DENUDATION IN CENTRAL GERMANY. 21S 

which these stupendous operations which have taken place in Switser- 
land were brought about. 

Baron Von Schlotheim, in his Nachtrage zur Fetrefactenkunde, 
18S2, describes, in the following terms, the valleys of denudation 
which traverse the plains of Saxony, on the south-west of Leipsig. 
And I remember to have been myself struck with them as being very 
remarkable in the vicinity of Jena, where they afford some of the 
most decided examples of deep valleys and gorges excavated entirely 
by diluvial action which I am acquainted with in Germany. 

** The deep narrow valleys and defiles prevailing in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jena, in the valley of the Muhl, and further towards 
Drakendorf and Eostritz, clearly show the power with which the 
ancient waters raged when these channels were excavated, in which at 
present flow the Saale, the Elster, and the adjoining smaller streams. 
It is manifest that during the course of this operation large tracts of 
the limestone superincumbent on the g3rpsum, as well as of the new 
red sandstone, were torn and swept away." 

M. Schlotheim is disposed to consider these as local occurrences, 
and to attribute them to the bursting, at successive periods, of 
the barrier of some fresh-water lakes. But this solution is in- 
admissible, unless we assume the existence of similar lakes at 
the head of every stream, and of every valley in the world ; for 
there are none in which the effects of similar denudation are not 
apparent : and Mr. Weaver, in his comment on this passage, most 
judiciously remarks, that lakes in the present course of nature have 
a tendency to fill up, by a gradual accumulation on their bottoms, 



21 4 VALLEYS NOT EXCAVATED BY CAUSES IN ACTION, 

and not to burst their barriers ; and that whatever antediluvian lakes 
and inland seas may have formerly existed, the gorges and defiles by 
which their waters were discharged can be referred to no physical 
cause at present in action, but were excavated by some extraneous and 
more mighty power than the waters of the lakes themselves ; and 
" where," says he, " is such a power to be found, but in the agency of 
the diluvian waters ?" 






BLOCKS DRIFTED FROM THE NORTH TO LAKE HURON. 215 



DILUVIAL ACTION IN NORTH AMERICA. 



Dr. Bigsby, in his Memoir on the Geography and Geology of Lake 
Huron, which is about to appear in the 2d part of the first volume of 
the new series of the G^logical Transactions of London, has traced in 
America the similar action of a violent flood of waters rushing also from 
the north, and drifting from thence blocks of various primitive rocks 
over the secondary and transition formations that compose the basin 
of that lake. He also notices in this same district, effects similar to 
the diluvial denudations in Europe, in the excavation of valleys, the 
separation of islands from the mainland, the formation of crags and 
serrated ridges of rocks, and the wearing away of the highest 
summits ; and shows that these cannot be attributed to any causes 
now in action, or to any gradual subsidence of the waters of the 
lake, but must be referred to the great debacle of a flood advancing 
from the north. The same waters, he adds, have accumulated 
immense deposits of sand and gravel, in heaps and ridges, at various 
levels of the main shores and islands in the lake. These travelled 
fragments are .foreign to the district they pervade, and are almost 
exclusively of the older class of rocks ; granite, gneiss, mica slate, 
greenstone, porphyry, sienite, and amygdaloids, which occur not in 
the neighbourhood, but may be shown to have come from the north, 



216 POSTDILUVIAN DETRITUS. 

and can many of them be traced to their original source in that 
direction. Between Lake Erie also and Lake Huron, he states the 
beaches and woods to be strewed with masses of gneiss, porphyries, 
conglomorates, and greenstones ; and that similar blocks appear on 
the north coast of Lake Erie, which itself is for the most part com* 
posed of a series of clay-cliffs and sand-hills. 

He moreover draws an accurate distinction between these diluvial 
drifting^ of the great debacle, and the small and Usually angular 
debris of strata produced by causes now in existence: this latter 
remains unmoved nearly in the place in which it is formed, at the 
base of the parent-clifis from which it has fallen. Thus the opposite 
shores of Felletau, on Lake Huron, being of dLSerent formations, the 
one limestone, the other greenstone, each is lined with its own debrisi 
and without admixture. 

In the fifth volume, number 2, of Silliman's American Journal of 
Science, he also gives an excellent example of another species of 
postdiluvian operations, viz. the forming of terraces, like the parallel 
roads described by Dr. Macculloch, at Glenroy, in Scotland, around 
the edges of lakes and on the flanks of great rivers, at considerable 
elevations above the level of their present waters : terraces of this 
kind are not uncommon in North America. The case I now quote is 
that of the valley of St Etienne, near Malbay, in which Dr. Bigsby 
accompanies his description with a map ; by which it appears that 
this valley has been a postdiluvian lake, which has lowered its level 
at successive periods, by the breaking down at distant intervals 
of the gorge through which the Malbay river now flows into the 



\ 



PARALLEL TERRACES IN EUROPE— BOULDERS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 217 

St Lawrence. The parallel terraces that encircle this dry valley 
show the number of successive stages by which the bursting of 
the gorge took place, and are exactly similar to those engraved in 
Dr. MaccuUoch's paper above quoted, in the fourth volume of the 
Geological Transactions*. 

Sir Alexander Croke has informed me, that the summits of some 
of the highest hills in Nova Scotia, being composed of slate, are 
strewed over with large blocks of granite. The present position of 
these fragments can only be accounted for by supposing them to 
have been drifted from the nearest granite districts by the same 
rush of waters that transported those described by Dr. Bigsby in 
the districts of Lake Huron and Lake Erie. And Dr. Meade, of 



* I have myself observed a similar appearance of successive terraces flanking the 
valleys of the Rhine below Basel ; of the Salza, at Coiling, on the south of Saltzburg ; 
of the Iser, at Munich ; and on the sides of many other rivers that descend from the 
Alps. These terraces are all of postdiluvial origin, and are often formed on diluvial 
gravel, and indicate either the shores of lakes that have at successive periods burst their 
barriers, and lowered their level, or become entirely dry; or, where they occur on the 
sides of rivers, they are cli£fs or escarpments cut in diluvial gravel by floods of 
extraordinary height, resulting either from unusual tempests, or from the bursting 
I have just mentioned of lakes in the higher districts from which these rivers are 
supplied. 

The examples here mentioned, of the bursting of lakes, militate at first sight against 
the observation I have quoted from Mr. Weaver, that modem lakes have not a tendency 
to burst their barriers, but to fill up ; still, however, he is right in his general rule, that 
such is the ordinary course of nature with respect to them. The bursting of modem 
lakes is of rare occurrence ; and wherever it has happened, there is evidence of the fact, 
in its leaving parallel terraces of gravel on its ancient shores; and when we consider 
bow very few the valleys are in which such terraces occur (the neighbourhood of Glen 
Roy, for example, being the only instance we know in Britain), it is obvious that these 
few cases are but rare exceptions to the general rule which Mr. Weaver has laid 
down. 

F F 



218 BOITLDERS IN NEW YORK-i^GOLD SAND OF SOUTH AllEBICA. 

Philadelphia, in his account of the ^mineral waters of Ballaston and 
Saratoga, in the state of New York, about 200 miles north of that 
city, states, " That the surface of the ground, which is here composed 
of shale and limestone, is covered with large insulated masses of 
stone, commonly called boulders, consisting of large blocks of quarts, 
and rolled masses of other primitive rocks. These (he adds) must 
have been transmitted from the neighbouring mountains, as they are 
not attached to the rocks in situ, and have no connexion with them : 
they are found in every country, and only prove the action of an 
extensive flood of waters/' 

In -this dispersion of blocks of granite and beds of gravel in 
North America, we have evidence of a debacle by the diluvian 
waters in the western hemisphere, analogous to that we have been 
examining in Europe ; and the presence of the bones of elephants, 
and other animals which are common to the gravel of both con- 
tinents, shows that the time of its formation was in each case the 

same. 

In South America the sand and gravel in which they find the 
tin of Mexico, and such extensive deposits of grains of gold and 
precious stones, are composed of the diluvial wreck of mountains, 
in which, as their matrix, these minerals were once imbedded, and 
where they would have remained to the present hour, had they not 
been broken down and reduced to sand and gravel by the same 
diluvial waters that have in a similar manner overspread Europe 
with the detritus of its own mountains. I have already mentioned 
metalliferous examples of this detritus in the stream tin ore of Corn- 
wall, and the lead ore that is similarly circumstanced in the Vale of 



GOLD SAND IN ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, WALES, AND IBELAND. 219 

Clwydd. In the same gravel of Cornwall, and in that of Devon, 
Wales, and Scotland, small pebbles and grains of gold have occa^- 
sionally been found; and in Ireland the gold mine that was worked 
a few years since in the county of Wicklow was simply a stream-work, 
in which the gold was dispersed in the form of small pebbles and 
sand, through a bed of gravel *. 



* For an account of this gold mine, see an excellent paper by Mr. Weaver, in the 
Transactions of the Geological Society, voL v. p. S07. 



F F 2 



220 GOLD SAND OF AFRICA AND ASIA. 



PKOOFS OF DILUVIAL ACTION IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 

The gold that occurs so largely in various parts of Africa is 
chiefly found, like that last spoken of, in the state of small rolled 
grains disseminated through diluvial sand and gravel ; so also is the 
tin, which is so abundant in the peninsula of Malacca, and in fianca, 
and other islands adjacent to Smnatra, being simply diluvial or stream 
tm, Uke that of the gravel of ComwalL 

In Hindoostan, near Bombay, agates and onyx stones are col- 
lected as pebbles from diluvial gravel beds; whilst many of the plains 
in the interior of India contain amidst their gravel rolled pebbles of 
copper ore, in quantity sufficient to send large supplies of malachite 
to the eastern markets. The greater part of the diamonds also of 
India, as well as of South America, and the precious stones of Ceylon, 
are found dispersed in the state of small sand and pebbles through 
diluvial gravel. In the same kind of gravel also are found the topaz 
pebbles of Cairn Gorm, in Scotland. 

The erroneous idea of the old mineralogists, that. the sand of all 
riveri^ in the world contains gold, is true only of those which flow 
through countries that are strewed with the wreck of mountains, 
through which gold had been once disseminated, i. e. of primitive 
and transition rocks ; and as most great rivers of the wodd have their 
origin in rocks of this kind, the very general dispersion of grains of 
gold along their course adds another fact to the many I have already 
advanced, to show the effects of diluvial action to be co-extensive 
with the surface of the whole earth. 



ALPS AND CARPATHIANS HAVE BEEN UNDER WATER. 221 



PROOFS OF INUNDATION AT HIGH LEVELS. 

It has been asserted by writers of high authority, and even by 
Cuvier, that the occurrence of the diluvian remains of the larger 
5^niTnak is limited to the lower regions and great valleys of the world ; 
and an inference has been drawn, that the waters of the flood, by 
which they perished, did not cover the summits of the higher 
mountains*. 

Against this hypothesis the following facts appear decisive. 1st. 
The blocks of granite, which have been transported from the heights 
of Mont Blanc to the Jura mountains, could not have been moved 
from their parent mountain^ which is the highest in Europe, had not 
that mountain been below the level of the water by which they were 
so transported. 

2d. The Alps and Carpathians, and all the other mountain re- 
gions I have ever visited in Europe, bear in the form of their com- 
ponent hills the same evidence of having been modified by the force 
of water, as do the hills of the lower regions of the earth ; and in 
their valleys also, where there was space to afibrd it a lodgement, I 
have always found diluvial gravel of the same nature and origin with 
that of the plains below, and which can be clearly distinguished from 
the postdiluvian detritus of mountain torrents or rivers. 

* D'ailleurs rinondation qui les a enfouis ne s^est point 61ey6e au-dessua des grandes 
chains de montagnes, puisque les couches qu'elle a d6pos6e8 et qui recouvrent les osse- 
mens ne se trouvent que dans des plaines peu ^lev^es, — Cuvier, vol. L p. 202. 



222 BONES IN SOUTH AMERICA AT ELEVATION ABOVE 7000 FEET, 

3(L With regard to the bones of animals that perished by this 
great inundation, although they have not yet been discovered in 
the high alpine gravel beds of Europe (which is but a negative fact), 

we have in America the bones of the mastodon at an elevation of 

t 

7800 feet above the sea, in the Camp de G6ants, near Santa Fe de 
Bagota ; and another species of the same genus in the CordiUenu^, 
found by Humboldt, at the elevation of 7200 feet, near the volcano 
of Imbaburra, in the kingdom of Quito. Mr. Humboldt has also 
found the tooth of the fossil elephant, resembling that of the northern 
hemisphere, at Hue-huetoca, on the plain of Mexico; and if the 
animal remains of this era have not yet been discovered at such heights 
as these in Europe, let it be recollected that we have no elevated 
mountain plains like those in America ; that our highest mountains 
are but narrow peaks, and ridges of small extent, when compared with 
the low country that surrounds them ; and that if it were proved 
(which it is not) that the animals inhabited these highest points, it 
is more than probable that their carcases would have been drifted oS, 
as the greater mass of their gravel has been, into the lower levels of 
the adjacent country. 

But in central Asia the bones of horses and deer have been found at 
an elevation of 16,000 feet above the sea, in the Hymalaya mountains. 
The bones I am now speaking of are at the Royal College of Surgeons 
in London, and were sent last year to Sir E. Home, by Captain W. S. 
Webb, who procured them from the Chinese Tartars of Daba, who 
assured him that they were found in the north face of the snowy 
ridge of Eylas, in lat. 32, at a spot which Captain Webb calculates 
to be not less than 16,000 feet high : they are only obtained from the 



BONES ON HYMALAYA CHAIN AT 16,000 FEET. 228 

masses that fall with the avalanches from the regions of perpetual 
snow, and are therefore said by the natives to have fallen from the 
douds, and to be the bones of genii. Those I have seen are the 
astragalus, head of femur, and portions of humerus of a small species 
of horse, and some bones of deer ; their medullary cavities and cancelli 
are lined, or entirely filled with white crystalline carbonate of lime, 
beautifully transparent, and the bone itself is white, and very absorbent 
to the tongue ; their matrix is a grey calcareous sand, adhering firmly 
to the bones, and interspersed with small concretions of carbonate of 
lime. There were also found with them the bones of bears*. 

The occurrence of these bones at such an enormous elevation in 
the regions of eternal snow, and consequently in a spot now unfre- 
quented by such animals as the horse and deer, can, I think, be ex- 
plained only by supposing them to be of antediluvian origin, and that 
the carcases of the animals were drifted to their present place, and 
lodged in sand^ by the diluvial waters. 

This appears to me the most probable solution that can be sug- 
gested; and, should it prove the true one, will add a still more 
decisive fact to those of the granite blocks drifted from the heights of 
Mont Blanc to the Jura, and the bones of diluvial animals found by 
Humboldt on the elevated plains of South America, to show that 
'< all the high hills and the mountains under the whole heavens 
were covered,"' at the time when the last great physical change by 
an inundation of water took place, over the surface of the whole 
earth. 

* For further particulars^ received from Captain Webb, respecting these bones, 
see the Quarterly Review, No. 57, p. 155. 



S24 MR. GREENOUGirS EVIDENCE OF ONE UNIVERSAL DELUGE. 

Thus far I have produced a various and, in my judgment, incon- 
trovertible body of facts, to show that the whole earth has been sub- 
jected to a recent and universal inundation. The same opinion is 
maintained in Mr. Greenough's Examination of the First Principles 
of Geology, where he concludes his admirable summary of phenomena 
derivative from diluvial action, in all quarters of the earth, with the 
following important passages. ^ The universal dLSusion of alluvial 
sand, gravel, &c. proves that at some time or other an inundation has 
taken place in all countries ; and the presence of similar alluvial de- 
posits, both organic and inorganic, in neighbouring or distant islands, 
though consisting often of substances foreign to the rocks of which 
the islands are respectively composed, makes it highly probable at 
least, that these deposits are products of the same inundation. The 
universal occurrence of mountains and valleys, and the symmetry 
which pervades their several branches and inosculations, are further 
proofs, not only that a deluge has swept over every part of the globe, 
but probably the same deluge.'* He also shows it to be highly pro- 
bable, ^ that the order of things immediately preceding the deluge 
closely resembled the present order, and was suddenly interrupted by 
a general flood, which swept away the quadrupeds from the con- 
tinents, tore up the solid strata, and reduced the surface to a state of 
ruin : but this disorder was of short duration ; the mutilated earth did 
not cease to be a planet ; animals and plants, similar to those which 
had perished, once more adorned its surface ; and nature again sub- 
mitted to that regular system of laws, which has continued uninter- 
rupted to the present day." 



OPINIONS OF CATCOTT, JONES, HUTCHINSON, AND CUVIER. 225 

In the works of Catcott, Jones, and Hutchinson *, a mass of strong 
evidence is brought forward to show the agency of diluvial currents in 
excavating valleys, over large portions of the surface of this island. 
And M, Cuvier, in his Essay on the Theory of the Earth, expresses 
his conviction, that if there be any one fact thoroughly established 
by geological investigations, it is that of the low antiquity of the 
present state of the surface of the earth, and the circumstance of 
its having been overwhelmed at no very distant period by the waters 
of a transient deluge ; and although Voltaire may have indulged 
himself in denying the possibility of such an event f , and Linna&us 
have overlooked its evidences :}:, the discoveries of modem geology, 
founded on the accurate observation of natural phenomena, prove to 

^ See Catcott, on the Deluge, 1768; Jones's Physiological Disquisitions; and 
Hutchinson's Works, Vol. XII. 

-f ^'Y a-t-il eu un temps ou le globe a 6t6 enti^rement inonde ? Cela est physique- 
ment impossible.'^ — ^Voltaire, Diet. PhiL Art. Inondation. 

% The opinion expressed by Linnaeus, that he could discover in the earth's struc- 
ture no proofs whatever of a deluge amidst abundant evidences of very high antiquity, 
was obvious to be adopted by an accurate observer, at a time when it was attempted to 
explain all the phenomena of stratification and organic remains, by reference to this 
single catastrophe ; the infant state of geology at that time rendered it almost impos- 
sible to distinguish the phenomena which are strictly of diluvial origin from those which 
must be referred to other and more ancient causes: but the advances that have 
since been made in this science have established a numerous and widely varied series of 
facts, a certain class of which bears as unequivocal evidence of the existence of a deluge 
at no very distant period, as the phenomena of stratification afiTord on the other hand 
of more ancient revolutions afiTecting our planet during, the time in which its strata 
were deposited ; and it has been from want of accuracy in distinguishing between these 
two distinct classes of facts that errors have arisen, such as those into which Linneeus 
fell. For an explanation of the manner in which these natural appearances may be 
reconciled with the Mosaic accoimt of the creation, I must again refer to my inaugural 
lecture, before quoted. 

O G 



226 SUMMARY OF FACTS PROVING AN UNIVERSAL DELUGE. 

demonstration, that there has been an universal inundatioa of the 
earth, though they have not yet shown by what physical cause it was 
produced: and I cannot better conclude this part of my subject 
than by extracting from my inaugural lecture, before alluded to, the 
following summary of the facts to which, in addition to those af- 
forded by the interior of caves and fissures, I now appeal They are 
as follows : 

I. The general shape and position of hiUs and valleys ; the 
former having their sides and surfaces universally modified by the 
action of violent waters, and presenting often the same alternation 
of salient and retiring angles that mark the course of a common 
river; and the latter, in those cases which are called valleys of 
denundation, being attended with such phenomena as show them to 
owe their existence entirely to excavation under the action of a flood 
of waters. 

II. The almost universal confluence and successive inosculations 
of minor valleys with each other, and final termination of them all iti 
some main trunk which conducts their waters to the sea ; and the rare 
interruption of their courses by transverse barriers producing lakes. 

III. The occurrence of detached insulated masses of horizontal 
strata, called outliers, at considerable distances from the beds of 
which they once evidently formed a continuous part, and fi'om which 
they have been separated at a recent period by deep and precipitous 
valleys of denudation. 

IV. The immense deposits of gravel that occur occasionally on 
the summit and slopes of hills, and almost universally in' valleys over 



iSUMMARY OF FACTS PROVING AN UNIVERSAL DELUGE. 227 

the whole world ; in situations to which no torrents or rivers that 
are now in action could ever have drifted them. 

V. The nature of this gravel, being in part composed of the 
wreck of the neighbouring hills, and partly of fragments and blocks 
that have been transported from very distant regions. 

VI. The nature and condition of the organic remains peculiar to 
this gravel ; many of them being identical with, and others not di- 
stinguishable from, species that now exist, and very few having under- 
gone the smallest process of mineralization. Their condition resembles 
that of common grave bones, being in so recent a state and having 
undergone so little decay, that if the records of history, and the cir- 
cumstances that attend them, did not absolutely forbid such a sup- 
position, we should be inclined to attribute them even to a much 
later period than the deluge : and certainly there is in my opinion 
no single fact connected with them, that should lead us to date their 
origin from any more ancient era*. 

VII. The total impossibility of referring any one of these ap- 
pearances to the effect of ancient or modem rivers, or any other 

♦ This gravel contains also rolled fragments of various organic bodies^ more ancient 
than those we are now considering, and which were embedded in the strata of whose 
detritus the gravel is composed ; e. g, belemnites, corals, oyster-shells, from the chalk 
and oohte formations, &c.: these are wholly distinct from the organic remains, which 
are peculiar to diluvium; the latter being chiefly the bones of quadrupeds that 
inhabited the land, and the shells of molluscse that inhabited the sea at the period 
immediately preceding the inundation, by which the gravel in question was formed. 
The shells accumulated in the diluvial gravel of Suffolk and Norfolk, and known 
locally by the name of Crag, are an example of the remains I now allude to. They appear 
to be marine shells, drifted inland from the bottom of the antediluvian ocean, by the 
same currents that produced the gravel through which they are now dispersed, in the 
cliffs along the coast, and over the interior of these counties ; and with very few excep- 
tions, they agree in species with shells that at present inhabit the adjacent seas. 

o g2 



228 SUMMARY OF FACTS PROVING AN UNIVERSAL DELUGE. 

causes, that are now, or appear ever to have been in action, since the 
retreat of the diluvian waters. 

VIII. The analogous occurrence of similar phenomena in almost 
all the regions of the world that have hitherto been scientifically 
investigated, presenting a series of facts that are uniformly consistent 
with the hypothesis of a contemporaneous and diluvial origin. 

IX. The perfect harmony and consistency in the circumstances of 
those few changes that now go on, (e. g. the formation of ravines and 
gravel by mountain torrents ;' the limited depth and continual growth 
of peat bogs ; the formation of tufa, sand-banks, deltas, coral reefs, and 
streams of lava ; and the filling up of lakes, estuaries, and marshes,) 
with the hypothesis which dates the commencement of all such 
operations at a period not more ancient than that which our received 
chronologies assign to the deluge. 

All these facts, whether considered collectively or separately, 
present such a conformity of proofs, tending to establish the uni- 
versality of a recent inundation of the earth, as no difficulties or 
objections that .have hitherto arisen are in any way sufficient to 
overrule. 

In the full confidence that these difficulties will at length be 
removed by the further extension of physical observations, we may 
for the present rest satisfied with the argument that numberless 
phenomena have been already ascertained, which without the admis- 
sion of an universal deluge, it seems not easy, nay, utterly impossible 
to explain. 



POSTSCRIPT. 



As I have ventured in this work to controvert the opinions ex- 
pressed by M. Cuvier in his first edition, on points of high import- 
ance, in relation to the chronology of the animal remains contained 
in the caves, fissures, and diluvian gravel ; I am much gratified that 
the recent publication of the fourth volume of his second edition 
enables me to subjoin the testimony of that illustrious naturalist to 
the correctness of my views on the points in question, and to add the 
flattering sanction of his full approbation of the description I have 
published of the cave at Kirkdale, and of the important inferences I 
have founded upon its phenomena. 

At page 224fy discussing the date of the osseous breccia of 
Gibraltar, and on the coast of the Mediterranean, which he had before 
considered to be more recent than the bones in the caves and diluvian 
gravel, M. Cuvier says, " Je reviens done k Vid4e que je n'avois ose 
embrasser autrefois ; celle que ces d6p6ts des br^ches osseuses ont 6t6 
formes aux depens de la population contemporaire des rhinoc6ros et 
des 616phans fossiles." 

And again at page 486, ^^ les br^ches osseuses paroissent aujour- 



230 OPINION OF M. CUVIER. 

dTiui sous iin point de vue d'un int6r6t tout nouveau ; le nombre 
des esp^ces manifestement inconnues et des esp^ces au moins 
6trang6res, qu'elles recfelent, s'est beaucoup accru/* " Ces esp^ces in- 
connues reculent Vkge d'une grande partie de ces br^ches bien au 
del^ de r6poque oil on les croyoit fornixes, et portent a les regarder 
au moins comme contemporaines des couches qui renferment les os 
d'616phant, de rhinoceros, et d'hippopotame/' 

This is precisely the evidence to which I appealed in my first 
account of Kirkdale, as that which would be decisive of the antiquity 
I wished to establish with respect to the bones of the osseous breccia 
at Gibraltar, and in other similar fissures. 

With respect also to the relative ages of the bones found in 
caverns, and in diluvium, M . Cuvier admits the same conclusion, page 
486. "Les cavemes a ossemens r6clament aujourd'hui la m6me an- 
tiquity. Farmi les nombreux camassiers qui les remj^ybssent, il en est 
un, rhyfene, qui s'est trouve assod^ soit a Eirkdale, soit k Fouvent, 
soit pr^s de Canstadt et d'Eichstadt, aux 616phans, aux rhinoceros, 
k narines cloisonn^es, aux hippopotames, en un mot, aux grands 
pachydermes des terrains meubles; et comme la mdme esp^ce 
accompagne k Gailenreuth lets tigres et les grands ours elle fait 
n6cessairement remonter ces demiers animaux aussi haut qu'elle 
dans le temps.'' 

And again at page 305> speaking of the same subject, he says, 
" II est suffisamment prouv6 que ces divers animaux ont vecus ensem- 
ble dans les m6mes pays et ont appartenu k la meme 6poque. Ce 
fait important me paroit avoir 6t6 parfaitement 6tabli par M. Buck- 
land/' 



OPINION OF M. CUVIER. 231 

With respect to Kirkdale^ he says, page 394, " Le depdt le plus 
abundant en os d'hy^ne que Ton ait jamais observ6, oi!i leur nombre 
va pour ainsi dire jusqu'au merveilleux, c'est la caveme de Eirkdale, 
dans le comt6 d'York, que j'ai d^crite d-dessus d'apres M. Buck- 
land." 

And at page 302, ^ En g6n6ral, il paroit qu'avant les demieres 
d6couyertes, et surtout celle qui vient d'etre faite dans le comt6 
d'York^ on ne connoissoit gu^re que celles d'Allemagne, et de 
Hongrie, qui fiissent riches en ossemens de camassiers. 

** A la v6rit6, on pouvoit dkjk croire que le rocher de Fouvent, 
dont nous avons parl6 dans notre premier volume, et qui montre 
dans une de ses cayit6s des os dliyenes en m6me temps que d'616- 
phans, de rhinoceros, et de chevaux, appartenoit k cet ordre de 
ph6nom^nes, mais, comme on ne p6n6tra point dans la profondeur, 
on ne put constater ce qui en 6toit. 

** n n'en a pas 6t6 de m^me de la caveme de Kirkdale. Visit6e 
aussit6t apr^s sa d6couverte par plusieurs hommes instruits, et 
surtout par le savant et ing^nieux g6oliste, M. Buckland, on n'a rien 
k desirer k son sujet/' 

M. Cuvier also expresses an opinion which coincides entirely with 
my own, ^ that the human race had not estabUshed themselves in 
those countries where the animal remains under consideration have 
hitherto been found, in the period preceding the grand inundation 
by which they were destroyed.'* 



} 



APPENDIX. 



11 H 



APPENDIX. 



ON THE EXCAVATION OF VALLEYS BY DILUVIAL 

DENUDATION. 

I HAVE reserved for this place, in the form of an Appendix, the 
foUowing details respectmg two districts which I have abeady quoted 
in my specification of the proofs of diluvial action in the south of 
England, because the particulars herein enumerated would have* 
interrupted the course of my former argument; and also, because 
they have already been published in the first volume of the New 
Series of the Geol. Trans. Part I., and, in the fifth volume of the Old 
Series of the same Transactions, Part II. They relate to the valleys 
of denudation that intersect the coast of Devon and Dorset, and to 
the excavation of valleys and dispersion of beds of gravel in the 
county of Warwick, and along the course of the Cherwell, Evenlode, 
and Thames, from Warwickshire to London. 

We have few opportunities of witnessing by direct experiment 
or observation the force of immense masses of water, in excavating 
hollows on the earth's surface, and removing to a great distance the 
fragments which they tear away ; and were it not for the ravages we 
occasionally see produced by such comparatively trifling causes, as 
the bursting of a dyke in Holland, or of the barrier of an Alpine 

H H 2 



286 FORCE OF LARGE MASSES OF WATER SET IN MOTION. 

lake, we could scarcely believe that there are valleys of many miles 
in breadth, and many hundred feet in depths which owe their origin 
exclusively to the excavating power of a flood of waters. 

Our present rivers excavate but little, as they flow through 
valleys already formed by an overwhelming ocean ; and the de- 
structive action of the present sea is limited to the partial cutting 
away of cliflfe by the slow undermining of the waves in storms and at 
high tides. Yet we know from the effect of a mountain torrent 
in cutting ravines and drifting gravel ; from the blocks of granite 
which were lifted to an elevated point on the side of a mountain by 
the bursting of a small lake in the Val de Bagnes, in Switzerland, 
a few years ago ; and from the excavation of the Zuyderzee, by the 
bursting of a dyke in Holland ; that the force of water in rapid 
motion is competent both to transport such masses of gravel and 
granite blocks as we have been tracing over the world, and to ex- 
cavate valleys which though many miles in breadth, and many hun- 
dred feet in depth, still bear a due proportion to the bulk and power 
of the agent that produced them. 

" When we call to mind," says Mr. Sumner, in his inestimable 
and most judicious work on the Kecords of Creation, VoL II. p. S50, 
" the destruction which is spread by a sudden alteration in the level 
of a very inconsiderable body of water, even to the extent of 50 or 
100 feet, we cannot easily assign Umits to the effect of a body of 
waters like the ocean pouring in over the land when its level was 
destroyed ; we are at a loss to conceive what the power of such a 
machine might be when once in operation." 

An agent thus gigantic appears to have operated universally on 
the surface of our planets at the period of the deluge ; the spaces 



VALLEYS EXCAVATED BY DILUVIAN WATERS. 237 

then laid bare by the sweeping away of the solid materials that had 
before filled them, are called valleys of denudation ; and the effects 
we see produced by water in the minor cases I have just mentioned, 
by presenting us an example within tangible Umits, prepare us to 
comprehend the mighty and stupendous magnitude of those forces, 
by which whole strata were swept away, and valleys laid open, and 
gorges excavated in the more soUd portions of the substance of the 
earth, bearing the same proportion to the overwhelming ocean by 
which they were produced, that modern ravines on the sides of 
mountains bear to the torrents which since the retreat of the deluge 
have created and continue to enlarge them. 

When a gorge or valley takes its beginning, and continues its 
whole extent within the area of strata that are horizontal, or nearly 
so, and which bear no mark of having been moved from their original 
place by elevation, depression, or disturbance of any kind ; and when 
it is also inclosed by hills that afford an exact correspondence of oppo- 
site parts, its origin must be referred to the removal of the substances 
that once filled it : and as it is quite impossible that this removal could 
have been produced in any conceivable duration of years by rivers that 
now flow through them, (since all the component streams, and conse- 
quently the rivers themselves, which are made up of their aggregate, 
owe their existence to the prior existence of the valleys through 
which they flow,) we must attribute it to some cause more powerful 
than any at present in action, and the only admissible explanation 
that suggests itself is, that they were excavated by the denuding 
force of a transient deluge. 

That these excavations took place at a period subsequent to that 
at which the earth was inhabited by the hyaenas, bears, elephants. 



238 VALLEYS EXCAVATED SINCE CAVES WERE INHABITED. 

rhinoceroses, &c. whose remains we find in caves, and diluvial loam 
and gravel, is evident both from the fact that the outscourings of 
these valleys form the gravel in which such bones are for the most 
part embedded ; and from the number of caves (once inhabited as 
dens) that have been intersected and laid open in the cli£% that 
flank their sides and narrow gorges. The present entrance of these 
caves is often a hole in an absolutely vertical precipice, which it 
is impossible to approach except by ropes or ladders, and which, 
therefore, could not have been accessible to the animals whose bones 
we find within, if the caves had originally terminated, as they do at 
present, in the face of a precipice ; it follows therefore, that the 
creation of such precipices, and consequently of the valleys in 
question, was posterior to the time in which the beasts occupied these 
dens. See an illustration of this hypothesis in the three caves 
intersected by the gorge of the Esbach, at Plate XVIII : see also 
Plate XV., XVI., and XIX. 

Note. ** The effects of water upon the solid strata of the globe have been the subject 
of much geological debate ; but it b now almost universally admitted, that valleys have 
been excavated by causes no longer in action,— contrary to the opinion of Dr. Hutton 
and Mr. Playfair, who maintained that they were formed by the long continued erosion of 
the streams which actually run through them. This question had been long since placed 
in a very convincing light by Hutchinson and his disciple Catcott ; who have shown, that 
the surface at present furrowed by valleys must have been in many cases continuous ; 
and this, in innumerable instances, where streams do not exist at all, (as every chalk down 
clearly shows), or where the existing streams are quite inadequate to the effect. Thus, 
in a series such as is here represented. 




the portions of the beds, a, b, and c, at present detached from each other, must once 
have been continuous ; d has only been partially cut through ; and e has been left un- 



VALLEYS ON THE EAST OF LYME AND OF SIDMOUTH. 2S9 



VALLEYS OF DENUDATION, AND DILUVIAL PEBBLES 
IN DORSET, DEVON, WILTS, AND BERKS. 

m 

Some of the best examples I am acquainted with of valleys thus 
produced exclusively by diluvial denudation occur in those parts of 
the coasts of Dorset and Devon which lie on the east of Lyme, and 
Ml the east of Sidmouth ; and the annexed views and map will 
illustrate, better than any description, the point I am endeavouring 
fo establish. In passing along this coast (see the Map and Views, 
Plates XXV. and XXVI.) we cross, nearly at right angles, a con- 
tinual succession of hills and valleys, the southern extremities of 
which are abruptly terminated by the sea ; the valleys gradually 
sloping into it, and the hills being abruptly truncated, and often 
overhanging the beach or undercliff, with a perpendicular precipice. 
The main direction of the greater number of these valleys is from 
north to south ; that is, nearly in the direction of the dip of the 
strata in which they are excavated : the streams and rivers that flow 
through them are short and inconsiderable, and incompetent, even 
when flooded, to move any thing more weighty than mud and sand. 

The greater number of these valleys, and of the hills that bound 

touched, merely because the excavation did not cut deep enough. The coast of Dorset 
and Devon exhibits a case of this kind very beautifully ; and with the greater distinct- 
ness, because the beds, which are there intersected, by valleys nearly at right angles to 
the coast, are so different from each other, and so unlike in appearance (chalk, green 
sand, oolite, lias, and red marl)^ that there is no difficulty in tracing them, and no doubt 
as to their former connexion* The author's paper on this part of the coast, which he 
has subjoined in an Appendix, is accompanied by a map and explanatory views, and 
iDustrates very clearly this important step in his argument^ — Edinburgh Review, No. 77. 
pp. S27, 9X8. 



240 STRATA CORRESPOND ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF VALLEYS. 

them, are within the limits of the north and north-west escarpment 
of the green sand formation ; and in their continuation southward 
they cut down into the oolite, lias, or red marl^ according as this or 
that formation constitutes the substratum over which the green sand 
originally extended. There is usually an exact correspondence in 
the structure of the hiUs inclosing each valley ; so that, whatever 
stratum is found on one side, the same is discoverable on the other 
side upon the prolongation of its. plane: whenever there is a want of 
correspondence in the strata on the opposite sides of a valley, it is 
referable to a change in the substrata upon which the excavating 
waters had to exert their force. 

The section of the hills in this district ttmally presents an 
insulated cap of chalk, or a bed of angular aad MMBlled chalk-flints, 
reposing on a broader bed of green sand ; and iUm again resting on 
a stiU broader base of oolite, lias, or red marl (see Plates XXV. and 
XXVI.) With the exception of the very local depression of the 
chalk, and subjacent green sand, and red marl on the west of the 
Axe, at Seer Cli£^ the position of the strata is regular and very 
slightly inclined ; nor have any subterraneous disturbances operated 
to an important degree to affect the form of the valleys. 

If we examine the valleys that fall into the bay of Charmouth 
from Surton on the east to Exmouth on the west, viz. that of the 
Sredy, the Srit, the Char, the Axe, the Sid, and the Otter, we shall 
find them all to be valleys of diluvian excavation ; their flanks are 
similarly constructed of parallel and respectively identical beds ; and 
the commencements of them all originate within the area and on the 
south side of the escarpment of the green sand. 

The valley of the Sid, as it is coloured in the annexed map, may 



STRATA WERE ONCE CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE VALLEYS. 241 

from its shortness and simplicity be taken as an example of the rest ; 
it originates in the green sand, but soon cuts down to the red marl, 
and continues upon it to the sea ; in both these respects it agrees 
with the upper branches of the Otter, and with the valleys that fall 
from the west into that of the Axe. 

But in those cases where the lias and oolite formations are inter- 
posed between the red marl and green sand, the base of the vaUey 
varies with the variation of substratum ; this may be seen by com- 
paring the opposite sides of the lower valleys of the Otter, the Axe, 
and the Char, with the variations of their substrata, as expressed in 
the map. 

The valley of Lyme is of equal simplicity with that of Sidmouth, 
and difPers only in that its lower strata are composed of lias instead of 
red marl : but the valleys of Chideock, Bridport, and Burton, being 
within the area of the oolite formation, have their lower slopes com- 
posed of oolite subjacent to the green sand; whilst that of Charmouth 
is of a mixed nature, having its western branches in green sand re- 
posing on lias, and in some of its eastern ramifications, intersecting also 
the oolite. In the same manner the valley of the Axe has lias inter- 
posed between the green sand and red marl on its east flank, but none 
at all on its western side, below the town of Axminster. These 
apparent anomalies form no exception to the general principle, that 
the variation of the sides of the valleys is always consistent with that 
which is simply referable to the variation of the substrata, on which 
the denuding waters had to exert their force. It is moreover such 
as can be explained on no other theory than that of the strata having 
at one time been connected continuously, across the now void spaces 
which constitute the valleys. 

I I 



242 SECTION OF LIAS QUARRIES NEAR AXMINSTER. 

The following section, taken from a series of lias quarries on the 
two opposite sides of the valley of the Axe, near Axminster, will show 
the degree of minuteness to which this correspondence extends*: 

1. White lias... Slaty and fissile, is used for flooring ^*- '"• 

when split into slabs from two to 

three inches thick S 

Clay. 

2. Burrs Rough blue building stone ... 10 

Clay. 

3. Cockles Flat and broad blue stone^ contain- 

ing shells and divided into two 
beds, each three inches thick, with 
a parting of day ; is used for build- 
ing.— Total 10 

Clay. 

4 Anvils Blue building stone, forming a bed 

of irregular anvil-shaped blocks . 1 

Clay. 

5. Graze Burrs. Good blue building stone ... 10 
Clay. 

6. Fire stone . . . White building stone, used also for 

forming the arch- work of lime pits : 
it divides into two beds, each four 
inches thick, with a parting of 
day.— Total 1 

* The details of these quarries are particolariy well known to me, as they are in the 
immediate neighbourhood of my native place, Azminster : when a child, I often visited 
them, and collected specimens of fossil shells, which first excited my attention to the sub- 
ject of geology. 



SECTION OF LIAS QUARRIES NEAR AXMINSTER. 243 



In. 



Clay. 

7. Half-foot bed Strong blue flagstone, the best for ^*- 

paving 6 

Clay. 

8. Foot stone . . . Slue paving and building stone . 10 
Clay. 

9. Red-size White lias, inclining to grey, splitting 

into two or -three thin slabs, and 

used for paving and building « 6 

Clay. 

10. Under bed... Blue building stone, used for paving, 

and the best bed of all for steps .0 8 
Clay, varying from one to six feet. 

1 1 . White rock. . .White lias, rough and rubbly through- 

out ; —not good for paving or build- 
ing, but used largely to make lime, 
which is better than that of the 
other beds for plastering and in- 
door work : the thickness of this 
bed is variable ; its average is . . 80 

All the above strata are separated by thin beds of clay, varying 
from four inches to a foot, and exceeding the latter thickness in one 
case only, viz. between Nos. 10 and 11: but the presence and relative 
position of each individual stratum of stone is constant ; and the 
specific character and uses of each bed are of practical notoriety 
among the masons through the district round Axminster, in which 
there are many and distant quarries, to any one of which the above 

' I I 2 



244 EXTENT OF DENUDATION IN EAST DEVON. 

section is equally applicable ; e.g. to the quarries of Fox Hills on the 
south-east, of Waycroft on the norths and of Sisterwood, Batdefbrd, 
Long Leigh, Small-ridge, Green-down, and Cox-wood, on the north- 
west of Axminster. There can be little doubt, therefore^ that the 
component strata of all these quarries were originally connected in 
one continuous plane across the now void space which forms the 
valley of the Axe. 

The fact of excavation ia evident from simple inspection of the 
manner in which the valleys intersect the coast, on the east of Sid- 
mouth and the east of Lyme, as represented in the annexed views 
(Plate XXV.) ; and it requires but little effort, either of the eye or 
the imagination, to restore and fill up the lost portions of the strata, 
that form the flanks of the valleys of Salcomb^ Dunscomb, and Brans- 
comb, on the east of Sidmouth ; or of Charmouth, Seatown, and Brid- 
port, on the east of Lyme. By prolonging the corresponding ex- 
tremities of the strata on the opposite flanks, we should entirely fill 
up the valleys, and only restore them to the state of continuity in 
which they were originaUy deposited. 

An examination of the present extent and state of the remaining 
portions of the chalk formation within the district we are considering, 
will show to what degree the diluvian waters have probably inter- 
rupted its original continuity. The insulated mass of chalk, which at 
Beer Head composes the entire thickness of the cliff, rises gradually 
westward with a continual diminution and removal of its upper sur- 
face ; till after becoming successively more and more thin on the cliflfe 
of Branscomb, Littlecomb, and Dunscomb, it finds in the latter its 
present extreme western boundary : beyond this boundary, on the 
top of Salcomb Hill, and of all the highest table-lands and insulated 



INSULATED FLINTS AND DETACHED MASSES OF CHALK. 245 

summits of the interior, from the ridges that encircle the vales of 
Sidmouth and Honiton, to the highest summits of Blackdown, and 
even of the distant and insulated ridge of Haldon, on the west of the 
valleyof £xe^ beds of angular and slightly rolled chalk-flints (which 
can be identified by the numerous and characteristic organic remains 
ivhich they contain) are of &equent occurrence ; similar beds are foimd 
also on the green sand summits that encircle the vaUeys of Char- 
mouth and Axminster ; large and insulated masses of chalk also occur 
along the coast, &om Lyme nearly to Axmouth, and in the interior 
at Widworthy, Membury, White Stanton, and Chard ; and these at 
distances varying &om 10 to 30 miles firom the present termination of 
the chalk formation in Dorsetshire, though within the limits of the 
original escarpment of the green sand. 

These facts concur to show, that there was a time when the chalk 
covered all those spaces on which the angular chalk-flints are at this 
time found ; and that it probably formed a continuous, or nearly 
continuous, stratum, &om its present termination in Dorsetshire, to 
Haldon, on the west, of Exeter*. 

From the correspondence observed by Mr. Wm. Phillips, between 

* There is also reason to think that the plastic clay formation was nearly coextensive 
with the chalky for on the central summits of Blackdown there are rounded pebbles of 
chalk-flinty which resemble those found in the gravel-beds of the plastic clay formation 
at Blackheath : and on the hills that encircle Sidmouth there are large blocks of a sili- 
ceous breccia, composed of chalk-flints united by a strong siliceous cement, and difiering 
from the Hertfordshire pudding-stone only in the circumstance of the imbedded flints 
being mostly angular, instead of rounded, as in the stone of Hertfordshire : a variation 
which occurs in similar blocks of the same formation at Portisham, near Abbotsbury, 
and elsewhere.^ — ^The argument, however, arising from the presence of these blocks and 
pebbles is imperfect ; as it is possible, though not probable, they may have been drifted 
to their actual place by the diluvian waters, before the excavation of the valleys. 



246 ENGLISH CHANNEL IN PART A VALLEY OF DENUDATION. 

the strata of Dover and the hills west of Calais *, and by Mr. De 
la Beche, between the strata of the coast of Dorset and Devon, and 
those of Normandy -f-, it may be inferred (after making due allowance 
fat the possible influence of those earlier causes, which in many in- 
stances have occasioned valleys) that the English Channel is a sub- 
marine valley, which owes its origin in a great measure to diluvial 
excavation, the opposite sides having as much correspondence as 
those of ordinary valleys on the land. According to Bouache, the 
depth of the Straits of Dover is on an average less than 180 feet; 
and from thence westward to the chops of the Channel the water 
gradually deepens to only 420 feet, a depth less thmi that of the 
majority of inland valleys which terminate in the Bay of Charmouth ; 
and as valleys usually increase in depth from the sides towards their 
centre, so also the submarine valley of the Channel is deepest in the 

* 

middle, and becomes more shallow towards either shore. 

It seems probable, that a large portion of the matter dislodged 
from the valleys of which we have been speaking, by the diluvian 
waters to which they owe their origin, has been drifted into the princi- 
pal valley of this district, viz. the bed of the sea ; and being subse- 
quently carried eastward, by the superior force of the flowing above 
that of the ebbing tide, and the prevailing storms &om the south- 
west, has formed that vast bed of pebbles known by the name of the 
Chesil Bank : the principal ingredients of which are such as on the 
above hypothesis they might be expected to be ; viz. rolled chalk- 
flints, and pebbles of chert if ; the softer parts of the materials that 

* See Geol. Trans, vol. v. pp. 47, &c. f Ibid. voL i. of New Series, p. 89. 

j: This hypothesis has received a further confirmation from the discoveryi by the 

Hon. Wm. Strangways in the summer of 1823| of the molar tooth of an elephant} among 



DILUVIAL GRAVEL AND ANIMALS IN DORSET AND DEVON. 247 

filled these valleys, such as chalk, sand, clay, and marl, having been 
floated o£^ and drifted far into the mid-channel or the ocean, by the 
violence of the diluvial waters. 

The quantity of diluvian gravel which remains lodged upon the 
slopes, and in the lower regions of the valleys that intersect this 
coast, is very considerable ; but it is not probable that many animal 
remains will be discovered in it, because the large proportion of clay 
with which it usually is mixed renders it less fit for roads than the 
shattered chert strata of the adjacent hills, aM consequently gravel- 
pits are seldom worked in the diluvium. Enough, however, has been 
done to identify its animal remains with those of the diluvian gravel 
of other parts of England, by the discovery of several large tusks of 
elephant, and teeth of rhinoceros, in the valleys of Lyme and Char- 
mouth. 

On the highest parts of Blackdown, and on the insulated summits 
which surround the Vale of Charmouth, I have found abundantly 
pebbles of opaque white quartz, which must have been drifted thither 
from some distant primitive or transition country, and carried to their 
actual place, before the present valleys were excavated, and the steep 
escarpments formed, by which these high table-lands are now on 
every side surrounded. These cases are precisely of the same nature 
with those of the blocks of granite that lie on the mountains of the 
Jura, and on the plains of the north of Germany and Bussia, and 
with that of the quartzose pebbles found on the tops of the hills 

the pebbles of the Chesil Bank near Abbotsbury : it was rounded to the shape of apeb- 
ble, and must have been washed up not long since from the diluvium above alluded to, 
which lies at the bottom of the sea, undisturbed, except by extraordinary storms. Had 
the tooth been many years exposed to the waves on the Chesil Bank, it must have been 
totally, destroyed ; and the position of the bank will hardly allow us to suppose it to 
have been derived from any bed of diluvium on the land side of it. 



250 VARIOUS PEBBLES COLLECTED NEAR SHIPSTON. 

They have also been collected in prodigious numbers along the 
plains subjacent to the escarpment of the oolitic limestone that 
crosses Warwickshire,, near Shipston-on-Stour ; particularly on the 
south of that town, at the base of Long Compton Hill. (See Plate 
XXVII.) They are here accompanied by pebbles of white quartz, 
lydian stone, gneiss, porphyry, compact felspar, trap, sand-stone of 
several kinds, lias, chalk, and chalk-flints. 

Between Shipston and Moreton in the Marsh, they have been 
drifted into a kind of bay, formed by the horn-shaped headland of 
the Campden Hills, which projects like a pier-head some miles be- 
yond the ordinary line of the great limestone chain of the Cotswold 
Hills. The mouth of this bay opens directly to the north-east, from 
which quarter it is probable the current which brought the pebbles 
in question had its direction ; for on the south-east of Shipston there 
are pebbles of a hard red species of chalk, which occurs not un&e- 
quently in the Wolds of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, but is never 
met with in the chalk of the south or south-east of England. The 
nearest possible point, therefore, to which these pebbles of red chalk 
can be referred, is the neighbourhood of Spilsby, in Lincolnshire, 
whence a diluvial current flowing from the north-east would find an 
unobstructed passage across the plains of Leicestershire to the Bay 
of Shipston, and Moreton in the Marsh. With these pebbles of red 
chalk are others of hard and compact white chalk, such as accom- 
panies the red chalk in the two last mentioned counties, and which 
occurs also at Ridlington, in Rutlandshire. 

the Lickey Hill, in the 5th vol. of the Geological Transactions, from which this extract 
relating to the diluvial part of their history is transcribed. 



PEBBLES DRIFTED FROM SHIPSTON TO OXFORD. 251 

The diluvian current thus impelled into the Bay of Shipston, 
from the north-east, appears to have continued its course onwards 
beyond the head of this bay, near Moreton in the Marsh, (see Plate 
XXVII.) bursting in over the lowest point of depression of the great 
escarpment of the limestone ; and being deflected thence south-east- 
wards by the elevated ridge of Stow in the Wold, to have gone for- 
ward along the line of the vale of the Evenlode by Charlbury, till 
it joined that of the Thames at Ensham, five miles north-west of 
Oxford. 

This hypothesis affords the most satisfactory explanation of the 
origin of the great deposits of granular quartzose pebbles, which not 
only cover irregularly the lower, regions of the valley of the Even- 
lode, but are scattered abundantly ove^ the surface of the oolite 
strata, where they rise to a considerable height, and form table-lands 
on both sides that valley along its whole extent. It also accounts for 
the accumulation of beds of similar pebbles on the west and south of 
Oxford, upon the insulated and almost conical summit of Wy tham 
Hill, and the ridge of Bagley Wood, by their position exactly op- 
posite the mouth of the vale of the Evenlode, at its confluence with 
that of the Thames, at the very point on which the driftings eva- 
cuated from the former valley would be collected*. Being thus 
introduced within the escarpment of the ooUte, and having passed 
along the line of the Evenlode into the country round Oxford, 
these quartzose pebbles have been forced onwards, and mixed up 

* Near this same point, pebbles of clear rock crystal occur scattered over the sur- 
face at Ensham Heath, and are applied to the purposes of jewellery, like the Bagshot 
Heath diamonds, as they are commonly called, being merely small pebbles of crystallized 
quartz. 

K K 2 



252 COURSE OF PEBBLES FROM OXFORD TO LONDON. 

with the gravelly wreck of the neighbouring hills^ in eadi suooessive 
district along the line of the Thames, from the vale of Oxford down- 
wards to the gravel-beds of London, their quantity decreasing with 
the distance from their source ; so that in Hyde-Park, and the 
Kensington gravel-pits, they are less abundant than at Oxford. 
I have seen them on the summit of the chalk hills round Henley, 
Maidenhead, High Wycomb, and Beaconfield. They have been 
noticed also by Lord Grenville in his park at Dropmore, and in 
the gravel-pits at Bumham; in all these last-named places the 
great mass of the gravel is composed of imperfectly rolled flints 
derived from the neighbouring chalk. They are found also mixed 
with chalk-flints, and slightly rounded oolitic gravel, in the valley of 
the Cherwell, and the plains adjacent to it, from its source at 
Claydon and Cherwelton, to Banbury and Oxford, e. g. at Steeple 
Aston, Heyford, Rowsham, Kirtlington, and Kidlington. At Abing- 
don, they occur not only in the gravel-beds of the valley, but are 
scattered loosely over the plains composed of various strata around 
that town, as well as on the low hills round Newnham, Dorchester, and 
Wallingford. Among these pebbles, especially at Abingdon and in 
Bagley Wood, there are many of porphyritic green-stone and green- 
stone slate, which cannot have come from any nearer source than 
Chamwood Forest, in Leicestershire. 

The occurrence of quartzose pebbles in such high situations as 
the top of Henley Hill and Cumnor Hill, and again on the highest 
summits of Witchwood Forest, and generally on the elevated plains 
that flank the valleys of the Evenlode, the Cherwell, and the Thames, 
(see Plate XXVH.) goes fietr to prove the recent origin of the valleys 



PEBBLES ON SUMMITS AS WELL AS IN VALLEYS. 25S 

throu^ which these rivers now flow ; and compels us to refer their 
excavation to the denuding agency of the same diluvial waters which 
imported the pebbles. It seems probable that the first rush of these 
waters drifted in the pebbles within the great escarpment of the 
oolite, and strewed them over the then nearly continuous plains ; and 
that the valleys were subsequently scooped and furrowed out by the 
retiring action of these same waters ; for it is not easy to imagine any 
explanation of the fact of the pebbles being heaped together on the 
tops of the insulated, steep, and nearly conical hill of Wytham, and 
of the elevated ridge of Bagley Wood near Oxford, or on the highest 
crest of the oolite ridge of Witchwood Forest, and the chalky summits 
near Henley, unless we suppose the transport of the pebbles to those 
summits to have been anterior to the excavation of the valleys that 
now intersect and surround them. Nor is this hypothesis unsup- 
ported by the fact, that it is on the elevated plains that flank the 
vales of the Evenlode and Cherwell, no less than in the lower regions 
which form their present water-courses, that the quartzose pebbles 
are scattered in an almost uninterrupted line, marking distinctly the 
course by which they have been propelled from Warwickshire into 
the vafley of the Thames. (See map, Plate XXVII.) 

There is another strong fact tending to prove the excavation of 
tlie valleys of the Evenlode and Cherwell, and of the Thames (in 
part) near Oxford, to have been subsequent to the transport of the 
Warwickshire pebbles, namely, the absence of pebbles of oolite in the 
beds of gravel just mentioned as crowning the summits of Wytham 
Hill and Bagley Wood. Hence we may infer that the destruction 
of the oolite strata, as far as concerns these valleys, was not so 
much the effect of the advancing deluge as of its retiring waters, 



254 VALLEYS EXCAVATED BY SUBSIDING DILUVIAN WATERS. * 

cutting out deep gullies and furrows in the table-lands^ and sides of 
the higher ridges, and covering their bottom with gravely composed 
partly of the wreck of the strata immediately inclosing them, and 
partly of pebbles, which their first rush had transported fit)m more 
distant regions ; and thus it will appear that the lower trunks of the 
valleys of the Thames, Cherwell, and Evenlode, (i. e. those portions 
of them which may be fairly attributed to the exclusive action of 
denudation, and which lie below the average level of the table-lands 
which flank their course,) did not exist at the time of the first ad- 
vance of the waters^ which brought in the pebbles fit)m Warwickshire, 
but were excavated by the denuding agency which they exerted 
during the period of their retreat *. 

If we examine the geological structure of that large portion 
of England which lies south-east of the escarpment of the oolite 
formation, along its whole extent, from the coast of Dorset to that of 
Yorkshire, we shall find in it no one stratum that has the smallest 

* The excavations produced by the waters enteruig the low point of the oolite 
escarpment near M oreton have been so greats (see map, Plate XXVII.) that the head 
springs of the Evenlode, taking their rise from the lias strata in the vale of Moreton 
beyond the termination of the oolite, flow south-eastward toward Oxford, instead of 
falling by the much shorter course of the Stour into the valley of the Severn: and it is 
of importance to observe, that the Evenlode and Cherwell are the only rivers of all 
those which flow into the Thames, which have not their head-springs within the escarp- 
ment of the great oolite. The sources of the Cherwell, and a few of its earliest tribu- 
tary streams, being similarly circumstanced to those of the Evenlode, owe their exist- 
ence to similar denudations cut through the oolite strata into the clay beds of the sub- 
jacent lias, even as far south as the town of Banbury. The lowness of the ooHte 
escarpment at the lip or gap above Banbury appears still further from its having been 
selected as the line' by which the Oxford Canal is conducted out into the sandstone 
plains of Warwickshire. This was probably also the lowest point along the N. W. fron- 
tier of the oolite formation antecedently to the rise of the diluvian waters ; which, ad- 
vancing from the north with great velocity, would enter more abundantly, and produce 
larger deposits of gravel from the central counties along 'this line of lower depression^ 
than in any other part of the oolitic area. 



256 COMPOUND NATURE OF GRAVEL AT OXFORD AND LONDON. 

Similar varieties of gravel, the one angular, and the other completely 
rolled (the latter being derived from the adjacent pebble beds of 
the plastic clay formation), occur in the valley of the Thames near 
London. These rounded pebbles, like those from Warwickshire, had 
apparently received their attrition from the long continued action of 
violently agitated waters, during more early revolutions that have af- 
fected our planet ; whilst the imperfectly rolled fragments are referable 
to the diluvian waters, which drifted them only from the neighbour- 
ing hills to their present place ; and from the angular state of this and 
similar beds of diluvial gmvel, we may infer that the inundation which 
produced them was of short duration. 

On the south-west side of ^the Evenlode^ the valleys that intersect 
the Cotswold Hills in Gloucestershire are the effect of deep denuda- 
tions produced on the oolite limestone, by a volume of waters rushing 
downwards over strata composed of uniform and moderately yielding 
materials. Any irregular projections that might have existed on the 
original surface would cause these waters to descend with accelerated 
velocity over the intermediate depressions, and to excavate that series 
of sweeping combs and valleys that wind with the regular flexures of a 
meandrous river, and present masses of land alternately advancing 
and retiring with all the uniformity of the salient and re-entering 
angles that mark the course of running water. 

Striking examples of such valleys extending upwards far above 
the highest springs that take their rise in them, and forming vast 
diluvian furrows along the back of the inclined planes of the great 
oolite formation, may be seen in passing along the line of the Roman 
Fossway, from Bath to Stow in the Wold : this line, being parallel to 



COMBS AND DILUVIAL VALLEYS ON THE COTSWOLD HILLS. 257 

that of the great escarpment of the Cotswold Hills, crosses nearly at 
right angles all the valleys that descend from them towards the 
south-east, into the main trunks of the Thames or Avon ; and in 
no part of it are the features of diluvian action more strongly 
displayed than between North Leach and Stow in the Wold. It is 
obvious that such valleys cannot possibly be attributed to the action 
of springs or rivers that now flow through them, since they often 
take their origin many miles above even the highest springs : their 
magnitude and depth bespeak the agency of a mass of waters in- 
finitely more powerful than even the most violent water-spouts of 
modem times could nroduce : their form also difiers entirely from 
the deep and precipitous ravines which are excavated by mountain 
torrents ; and if it should be contended that the bursting of a series 
of water-spouts would be competent to set in action such masses of 
water as might have been sufficient for this effect ; imless we can 
suppose them to have fallen universally and contemporaneously, not 
only over the district under consideration, but over the whole earth, 
they will afford no solution of the phenomena of these and similar 
contemporaneous systems of valleys, which occur on strata that are 
similarly circumstanced in every part of the known world. 

The chalk downs of England; and the upper portions of the 
chalky and oolitic plains of France, are universally covered with a 
series of dry valleys exactly similar to those that occur on the back of 
the inclined planes of oolite in the Cotswold Hills ; and the uniform 
texture and moderate degree of inclination which usually attend 
both these formations will explain the regularity of the diluvian 
valleys that have been excavated on their surface. 

L L 



258 DENUDATION NOT THE ONLY CAUSE OF VALLEYS. 

In strata of higher antiquity, that have been more shattered and 
disturbed by violent convulsions (i. e. in the coal formation, and also 
in transition and primitive rocks), irregularities in the texture and dis- 
position of the strata on which the diluvian waters had to exert 
their force have caused the features of the valleys that traverse them 
to be much less exclusively derivative from the simple action of a 
retiring flood of waters ; and indeed have rendered the form, in- 
clination, hardness, and relative position of the masses on which 
these waters had to operate, essential elements of any accurate 
calculations as to the quantity of effect that must be referred to 
them. Though traces of diluvial action are most unequivocally 
visible over the surface of the whole earth, we must not attribute the 
origin of all valleys exclusively to that action ; in such cases as we 
have been describing, the simple force of water, acting in mass on 
the surface of gently inclined and regular strata of chalk and oolite, 
is sufficient for the effects produced ; but in other cases, more espe- 
cially in mountain districts, (where the greatest disturbances appear 
generally to have taken place,) the original form in which the strata 
were deposited, the subsequent convulsions to which they have been 
exposed, and the fractures, elevations, and subsidences which have 
affected them, have contributed to produce valleys of various kinds 
on the surface of the earth, before it was submitted to that last 
catastrophe of an universal deluge which has finally modified them 
all. 



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260 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Pl.ATK III. 

1. Portion of the left upper jaw of the modern hyaena from the 
Cape. 

2. Inside view of No. 1. 

3. Analogous portion of the left upper jaw of the fossil hyaena 
fi'om Kirkdale. 

4. Inside view of No, 3, with the tooth of a water-rat adhering 
by stalagmite to a broken portion of the palate. 

5. Fragment from Kirkdale, showing the inside of the palate, and 
five incisor teeth of the upper jaw, much worn down. 

Plate IV. 

1 . Outside view of the right lower jaw of the modern Cape hya?na. 

2. Analogous portion of lower jaw of the Kirkdale hyaena, being 
nearly one-third larger. 

3. Inside view of No, 2 . 

Plate V. 

!• Fragment of the right lower jaw of an hyaena, showing the 
convex surface of the jaw and its teeth, that lay uppermost in the 
den, to be deeply worn by friction, and to have received a polish. 
The enamel and one-third of the substance of the teeth and bone on 
this side have been worn away. 

2. Concave surface of No. 1, having no marks of friction, polish, or 
decay : the enamel on this side of the teeth is perfect and unchanged. 

3. Fragment of the right lower jaw of a young hyaena, having 
the convex surfoce only polished as in No. 1 ; and showing the cavities 
in which the second set of teeth were rising to succeed the first 
set : one of these, the j)osterior molar tooth, still remains in its place. 



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262 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

11. Small molar tooth of fox. 

12. Great molar tooth of the right lower jaw of fox ; outside view- 
IS. Inside view of No. 12. 

14. Fenultima of upper jaw% right side of fox. 

^* /Molar teeth of the first set of a young hysena. 

J I Molar teeth, &e. 
17.) 

18. Outside view of No. 17. 

19. Canine tooth of a young hyiuna. 

20. 21. Posterior molar tooth of the lower jaw of a young hyaena, 
much worn. 

22, 23, 24, 25. Outside and inside views of two molar teeth of 
the upper jaw of a young hyaena : they are all extremely thin, and 
have deep furrows worn on them. They may be seen in the jaw at 
Plate XIII. No. 3, 4. 

26, 27. Posterior molar tooth of the upper jaw of a young hyaena. 

28, 29. Posterior tooth and penultima of a weasel, left upper jaw 
(twice the natural size). 

30, 31. Side and front views of the same tooth, probably a 
diseased molar tooth of an hya?na. 

Plate VII. 

1. Small molar tooth of a very young elephant, being the average 
size of those found in the den. 

2. Fragment of a still younger elepliant's tooth, of the natural size. 

3. ^lolar tooth of upper jaw of rhinoceros. 

4. Inside view of molar tooth of lower jaw of rhinoceros. 

5. Crown of No. 4, as seen from above. 

6. Outside view of No. 4. 

7. Molar tooth of the upper jaw of a horse. 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 263 

8. "^Two views of a molar tooth of hippopotamus not at all worn 

9. ) down. 

10. Molar tooth of hippopotamus, having the summits of the 
crown worn down. 

Plate VIII. 

1. Posterior molar tooth of the lower jaw of an ox. 

2. Crown of No. 1. 

3. Posterior molar tooth of the right lower jaw of a species of deer. 

4. Molar tooth of the upper jaw of an ox. 

5. Molar tooth of the lower jaw of a calf. 

6. Side view of No. 5. 

7. Molar tooth of the upper jaw of an ox. 

8. Outside view of No. 7. 

9. Molar tooth of the upper jaw of a very large species of deer, 
equalling in size the largest elk, but differing in form. 

10. Outside view of No. 9. 

11. Molar tooth of the upper jaw of a second species of deer, 
equalling in size the largest red deer. 

12. Outside view of No. 11. 

] 3. ) Inside and outside views of a rising molar tooth of a third 
14.) species of deer, of the size of a large fallow deer. 

Plate IX. 

1. Outside view of a molar tooth of the lower jaw of a large 
species of deer. 

2. Inside view of No. 1. 

3. Base of the horn of a large deer, measuring nine inches and 
three-quarters in circumference, which corresponds exactly in size 



264 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

with that of a very large English red deer in the Anatomy School at 
Oxford. 

4. Base of a horn similai* to No. 1, having two antlers near its 
lower extremity, and measuring seven inches and three-quarters in 
circumference. 

5. Base of a deer's horn, having the lowest antler at the distance 
of three inches and a half from the lower extremity. 

Pl,ate X. , 

1 . Coronary bone of a horse. 

2. First phalangal bone of a very large ox ; seen laterally. 

3. Under side of No. 2. 

4. 5. Astragalus of a large ox : two different sides of the same 

bone. 

6. AJbum grdBcum, showing a small sphere adhering to the larger 
one, and an indentation of the sides of both by pressure from a third 
sphere. 

7- Astragalus of hyana. 
. 8. Side view of No. 7. 

9. Aistragalus of fox. 

10. Side view of No. 9. 

11. Astragalus of water-rat. 

12. Os calcis of water-rat. 

13. Os calcis of fox. 

14. Os calcis of rabbit. 

15. l6. Internal metatarsal bone of rabbit, having lost the 
epiphysis. 

17, 18. Metatarsal bone of rabbit, retaining the epiphysis at the 

lower extremity. 




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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 265 



Plate XI. 

The specimens from 1 to 29, inclusive, are all from Kirkdale. 

1 . Lower jaw of a water-rat. 

2. Lower incisor tooth of No. 1 . 

3. Upper incisor of water-rat. 

4. Anterior molar tooth of lower jaw of water-rat. 

5. No. 4, magnified. 

6. Crown of No. 4, magnified. 

7. Jaw of a mouse. 

8 and 9. Teeth of No. 7, magnified four times. 

10. Anterior molar tooth of the upper jaw of a rabbit. 

1 1 . Os innominatum of a young water-rat. 

12. Tibia of a water-rat. 

18. Lower epiphysis of femur of water-rat, twice magnified. 

14. Femur of water-rat, twice magnified. 

15. Ulna of water-rat. 

16. Tail vertebra of water-rat. 

17. Anterior extremity of No. 16. 

18. Posterior extremity of No. 16. 

19. Bight ulna of a raven ; anterior extremity. 

20. Outside view of No. 19, showing the points of attachment of 
the quill feathers. 

21. Right ulna of a raven, showing the other extremity of 
No. 19. 

22. 28. Other views of No. 20, showing the cavity to be nearly 
filled with stalagmite. 

24. Bight ulna of a lark, showing the attachments of the quill 
feathers. 

25. Inside view of No. 24. 

26. Left ulna of a very large species of pigeon. 

MM g^' 



266 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

27. Inside view of No. 26. 

28. Right coracoid process of the scapula of a small species of 
duck or widgeon. 

29. Inside view of No. 28. 

80. Tusk of the upper jaw of a large hog, polished obliquely near 
its apex, and having a molar tooth of hog adhering to it, near its 
base, by an ochreous crust, from Hutton cavern, in Mendip. 

31. View of the opposite side of No. SO. 

82. Large molar tooth of hog in a fragment of the lower jaw, 
slightly incrusted with oclire, from Hutton. 

38. Small molar tooth of hog, from Hutton. 

Nos. SO, 31, 82, 33 are in Mr. Catcott's collection at Bristol. 

Plate XII. 

Lower jaw nearly entire of a very old hyaena, found with the 
bones of elephant, rhinoceros, horse, ox, &c. in diluvium, at Lawford, 
near Rugby, in Warwickshire. The coronary part of all the teeth is 
nearly worn off, and on the worn surface of the two hindmost there 
are deep furrows; all the surfaces are highly poUshed, and even 
have a brilliant lustre ; seven teeth only remain, the animal having 
worn out nine from its lower jaw alone, viz. six incisors, the left 
canine or tusk, and two anterior molars. Traces of the root of the 
right anterior molar are still visible in their proper place : the sockets 
of all the other lost teeth have been either removed by absorption, or 
filled up with bone. 

It should be observed, that this specimen, and the humerus and 
ulna (Plate XIII. 1, 2.), are not in the least degree mangled or broken 
like those from the den at Kirkdale, being derived probably from one 
of the last hyaenas that were drowned by the diluvian waters, together 
with the other animals whose bones are found with them equally 
perfect, and free from such marks of violence as occur on all the bones 
of whatever kind discovered at Eirkdale. 



FJ.r/. 




EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 267 



Plate XIII. 

1. Badius of a very old hysena, found at Lawford, in the diluvium, 
with the jaw, in Plate XII, and probably from the same individual. 

2. Ulna fitting No. 1, and found together with it. Both these 
bones, like the jaw, have no marks of gnawing "or any violence in 
them, and appear to be from the same individual Nos. 1 and 2 are 
reduced one-tenth. 

S. Fragment of the right up})er jaw of a young hysna, showing the 
second set of teeth advancing beneath the first. This interesting 
specimen belongs to Archdeacon Wrangham, on whose property at 
Kirkdale the cavern stands. 

4. Outside view of No. 3 ; compare with this, the teeth 22, 28, 
24, 25, at Plate VI. 

5. Inside xdew of the great molar tooth of the right lower jaw 
of a wolf found at Kirkdale, by Mr. Salmond. 

6. Outside view of No. 5. 

7. Small molar tooth of an hippopotamus from Kirkdale. 

8. Part of the lower jaw of a hare or very large rabbit, from 
Kirkdale. Nos. 7 and 8 are from drawings, by Miss Duncombe. 

9. Humerus of a bird, apparently a goose, found at Lawford ; 
with Nos. 1 and 2, and with No. 1, Plate XII. 

10. Outside view of No. 9. This bone is the only example I 
know of the remains of birds being noticed in the diluvium of Eng- 
land, excepting those at Kirkdale. 

1 1 . Humerus of a bird, apparently a snipe, from Kirkdale. I had 
not compared this bone with any recent skeletons, at the time when 
page 15 of the first edition was printed. 

12. Inside view of No. 11. 

M M 2 



268 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate XIV. 

Vertical section of the great cave of Scharzfeldi on the west border of 
the Hartz ; drawn from a sketch made on the spot by Professor 
Buckland, A. D. 1822. 
A. Fissure in the surface of the land by which we descend into 
the great chamber B. 

fi. Portion of the main chamber, which extends into the hill to at 
least three times the length hevfi represented ; its roof is hung with 
clusters of stalactite. 

C. Crust of stalagmite, restored to perhaps a greater degree than 
that in which it probably existed on the floor, before it had been dis- 
turbed in search of bones. 

D. Bed of brown earth or diluvial loam, spread over the actual 
floor of the cave, and interspersed with angular fragments and 
rounded pebbles of limestone, and a few teeth and bones. 

E. Artificial excavation in this brown earth, down to the lime- 
stone of the actual floor. 

F. Artificial excavation through brown earth into the under- 
vault G. 

G. Under- vault filled completely with diluvium similar to D, but 
much more abundantly loaded with bones. 

H. Artificial vault excavated in G, in search of bones, which are 
seen forming part of its roof and sides, as well as of its floor. 

I. Under-vault, filled with the same diluvium and bones as G, and 
not yet disturbed. 

K. Passage, communicating from G to I, and also filled in the 
same manner. 



• * 



270 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

M. Supposed continuation of the cave A. to the antediluvian 
surface N. 

N. Supposed surface of limestone as it existed before the ex- 
cavation of the valley L, 

o. o. Large block of limestone laid irregidarly in the chamber B.* 
and apparently fallen from the roof. 

Plate XVI. 

Section of the cave of Biel's Hbhle, nearly opposite that of Bauman s 
Hohle, and on the right side of the gorge of the Bode. 

A. Small hole of entrance in the side of the cliff, by which we 
descend into the suite of irregular chambers that compose this cave. 

B. Bottom of numerous hollows or basins that occur along the 
course of the cave, and are uniformly covered with a deep bed of 
mud and sand, over which is spread a crust of stalagmite. 

C. Tubular cavities and fissures that ascend from various parts 
of the cave towards the surface, and by which the mud and sand were 
probably drifted in. 

D. Irregular rocky masses that form large pinnacles between 
the basins B., and have cavities on their summits filled also with a 
deep sediment of mud and sand, the surface of which is sealed over 
with a crust of stalagmite, H. 

E. Gorge or narrow valley of the Bode river, flanked on both 
sides by precipitous crags of transition limestone. 

F. Supposed continuation of the mouth A. to the surface, as it 
probably existed before the excavation of the valley. 

G. Supposed surface of the limestone before the formation of the 
subjacent valley. 

H. Crust of stalagmite covering the diluvial mud and sand both 
in the hollows B., and on the pinnacles D. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 271 



Plate XVIL 

Vertical section of the cave of Gailenreuth, in Franconia, from sketches 

made by Professor Buckland in 1816 and 1822. 

A. Entrance passage, varying from six to ten feet in height, 
terminating externally in a steep cli£^ and internally expanding itself 
into the large chamber B. 

B. Large chamber, having much stalactite on its roof, and still 
more stalagmite on its floor. In the centre is a pillar of these sub- 
stances, uniting the roof and floor. 

C. Crust of stalagmite, still perfect over great part of the floor 
of B., but much destroyed on that of the lower chamber F. 

D. Bed of diluvial loam, mixed with pebbles, angular fragments 
of limestone, bones and teeth : the bones are not so abundant as in 
the lower masses G. I. 

£. Hole excavated in the mass D. for the purpose of extracting 
bones : fragments of these bones lie loosely scattered on the surface 
of the crust C, and mixed with bones of modern animals, with ashes 
also and charcoal from fires made to illuminate the cave, and with com- 
mon soil brought in from the external surface. 

F. Second chamber, separated from B. by a perpendicular pre- 
cipice, and having probably other less steep communications with it. 
The stalagmite of the floor C. is represented as restored to the state 
in which it probably existed before it had been disturbed by digging. 

G. Enormous mass of bones lying in loose earth in a deep natural 
cavern, which descends laterally from the chamber F. 

H. Upper and empty part of the cavern which contains the bones G. 
I. Mass of bones, 25 feet deep, mixed with pebbles and loam, 
and cemented by stalagmite into a strong osseous breccia. 



272 EXPLANATION OF THE, PLATES. 

K. Well sunk 25 feet deep in I., for the purpose of extracting 

bones. 

K. K. Cavities excavated at the bottom of K., but not reaching 
through the breccia to the natural limestone rock. 

L. Oven-shaped cavity dug in the side of I. in search of bones 
and skulls. 

M. Low passage connecting the chamber F. with the smaller 
chamber N. 

N. Small innermost chamber, in the floor of which is sunk the 
well K. This must originally have been the roof of a deep cave, 
which has been filled up by the mass I. I. 



Plate XVIII. 

View of the narrow valley or gorge of the Esbach river, which falls 

into the Weissent a little above Muggendorf. 

A. Ruins of the castle of Rabenstein, on the edge of a cliff about 
100 feet high, on the right bank of the Esbach. 

fi. Chapel of Klaustein, standing immediately over the cave C, 
which I have called the cave of Rabenstein : it also bears the name 
of Klaustein. 

C Mouth of the cavern, leading to a large chamber, which has 
many side vaults and lateral communications, some of which pro- 
bably pass upwards to the surface. This cave contains few bones? 
but much mud and stalagmite. 

D. Channel of the Esbach, a very small river which descends by 
this gorge to join the Weissent. The gorge in its narrowest part is 
not 50 yards broad. 

E. Mouth of the cave of KUhloch, in the lowest part of the cliff, 
on the left flank of the gorge opposite the castle of Rabenstein. This 




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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 273 

mouth must have been included in solid rock till the valley had been 
cut down nearly to its present depth. 

F. Entrance to the cavern by a lofty vault leading to the cave G. 
The roof and floor of this vault are inclined downwards at a con- 
siderable angle. 

G. Section of the interior of the great cave, closed on every side 
with solid rock except at F., and having its floor H. buried under a 
deep bed of black animal earth and bones. The section is repre- 
sented by dotted lines marked on the surface of the diff. 

H. Actual floor of the cave, beneath the black earth and bones. 
I. Mouth of the cave of Schneiderloch, in the difls a little below 
Kuhloch, and also containing bones. 

Plate XIX. 

Map of the district round Muggendorf, in Franconia, showing the 
manner in which the country \a intersected by deep valleys of de- 
nudation, and the present mouths of the caves exposed in the diffii 
that flank these valleys, though not exclusively confined to them. 
This map is copied from that in Gk)ldfu8s's Pocket-book on the 
Environs of Muggendorf. 

The Vignette, giving a view of the mouth of the cave of Gkulen- 
reuth, with a fissure close adjacent to it, is copied from an engraving 
in Esper's account of the caves of this district. 

Plate XX. 

Vertical section of the cave discovered in the Dream lead mine at 
Callow, near Wirksworth, Derbyshire^ in December, 1822. 

A. Shaft sunk perpendicularly downwards 60 feet, through a 
solid vein oontainiDg lead. 

B . Supposed continuation of the lead vein below the floor of the cave. 

N N 



274 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

C. Cave in the state it was when visited hy the author in January, 
18239 excepting that a large number of the rhinoceros bones had 
been extracted. 

D. Fissure laid open by the subsiding of the materials that had 
filled it, into the cave C. ; the face of this fissure, under the plumb- 
line, is rubbed and scratched as if by descending masses of stone. 

E. Subsided mass of loose stones and argillaceous lo&m that had 
fiUed the cave to its roof, and the fissure to its sur&ce, before the 
cave was penetrated, and its contents in part extracted by the 
shaft A. 

F. Bones of ox and deer, and horns of deer found near those of 
the rhinoceros. 

G. Skeleton of rhinoceros restored to the state in which it pro- 
bably lay before its matrix had been disturbed by subsiding towards 
the shaft. 

H. Solid limestone of Derbyshire, containing the now open 
fissure D. and the shaft A., and intersected by numerous lead veins. 

I. Surface of the fissure, which was entirely level, and overgrown 
with grass, till its contents b^an to subside into the cave C. 

Plats XXI. Fio. 1. 

Vertical section of the cave of Goat Hole at Paviland, in the sea difl^ 

15 miles west of Swansea, in Glamorganshire. 

A. Mouth of the cave, at the base of a nearly vertical cUtE^ fiudng 
the sea, and accessible only at low water, except by dangerous 
climbing. 

fi. Inner extremity of the cave, where it becomes so small, thata 
dog only can go further, and apparently ending at a short distance 
within B. 

C. Body of the cave. Its length from A. to B. is about 60 feet, the 



EXPLANATION OP THE PLATES. 276 

breadth from C. to D. (in the plan, fig. 2,) is about 20, the height of 
the cave from 25 to 30 feet 

D. (In the section) irregular chimney-like aperture, ascending 
from the roof of the cave, and terminating in the nearly perpendicular 
cliff at K. ; it is too small for the entire carcase of an elephant to have 
passed down through it. 

E. Bottom of the cave, to which the sea water never reaches; this 
part is covered over with a loose mass of argillaceous loam and frag- 
ments of limestone, of diluvial origin, about six feet deep, which has 
been much disturbed by ancient diggings, and through which are dis- 
persed the bones and teeth. The elephant's head, and human ske- 
leton, are marked in the spot in which they were actually found. 

F. Mass of the same materials as £., but less disturbed, and over- 
hanging E. with a small cliff, five feet high, in which were found two 
elephant's teeth. This mass, though less disturbed than E., has been 
dug over before, and extends into the small hole within B. ; it contains 
dispersed through it, particularly near B.,recent sea shells and pebbles : 
at this place also it is firmly united by stalagmite, which rarely occurs 
in any other part of the cave. 

G. Loose sea pebbles, strewed in small quantity over the floor of 
the cave near its mouth, and washed up only by the waves of the 
highest storms. 

H. Rock basins, three feet deep, produced by friction of the large 
pebbles, which still lie in them. 

I. Naked limestone of the floor of the cave, forming the line 
within which the waves appear never to enter, and separating the sea 
pebbles without, from the diluvial loam and angular fragments that 
form the loose breccia within it. 

E. Upper termination of the chimney-shaped aperture in the 
face of the naked cliff. 

N N 2 



276 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

L. Ledges and hollows in the aperture K, on each of which is 
lodged about a foot of loose fine earth, that seems to be accumulated 
from dust drifted by the wind, and is full of minute land shells, and 
the bones of small animals, apparently brought hither by hawks and 
sea gulls, e. g. moles, water-rats, field-mice, small birds, and fish. 

Plate XXII. 

1. Lower portion of the horn of a small deer, apparently a cast 
horn separated by necrosis ; found in the Goat's Hole Cave at Pavi- 
land. 

2. Upper extremity of another horn found with No. 1, apparently 
of the same species ; it is very flat and thin. 

S. Lower extremity of a horn, still adhering to the skull, found 
with the rhinoceros in the cave near Wirksworth, 1822. Near it 
were several cylindrical portions of the shaft of similar horns, nearly 
of the same diameter as this, having their surface very smooth. 

4. Portion of a flat and palmated horn found with No. 3. The 
scale of 1, 2, 3, and 4, is half the natural size. 

5. Head of an hippopotamus, copied from p. 185 of Lee's History 
of Lancashire (fol. Oxon. 1700). The only account given of it is that 
it was dug up under a moss in Lancashire. 

6. Outside view of the right tusk of the upper jaw of an animal 
of the tiger kind, found by Mr. Cottle, of Bristol, A. D. 1822, with 
the bones already described, in the cave at Oreston, near Plymouth. 

7. Inside view of No. 6. 

Plate XXIII. 

1. Besiduary part of the lower extremity of the tibia of an ox, 
which I saw given entire to a Cape hyasna in Mr. Wombwell's tra- 
velling collection at Oxford, in December, 1822 : marks of the teeth are 





• * 




RBCBWTAND AMCIBNT MA.U.KB 0» TB,X 15.^*5 »- <iT ■B711».TP.*w» , 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 277 

distinctly visible at a, b, c, d, e, f. See note at p. 87, describing the 
hy Sena's manner of breaking and partly devouring this bone. Nos. 1, 
2j 3, and 4, are reduced one-third. 

2. Fragment of a similar tibia from Kirkdale Cave, broken nearly 
in the same manner as No. 1, and bearing similar marks of teeth at 
a, b, c, d, e : in the recent, as in the antediluvian specimen, the lower 
condyle has, from its hardness, been left unbroken. 

3. Splinter from another bone broken by the hyaena at Oxford : 
the cavity at A. was produced by the hyaena's tooth. 

4. Similar splinter, bearing a similar cavity A., from the cave at 
Kirkdale, and partially incrusted with stalagmite. 

5. Inside vieW of the lower extremity of the recent specimen, 
No. 1, in which the hole A. was produced by the hysena's bite. Nos. 
5' and 6 are reduced nearly one-half. 

6. Lower extremity of another tibia from Kirkdale, in which the 
form of the cavity A. resembles that in No. 5. 

7. Scaphoid bone of the left carpus of an ox, which, with the 
other component bones of the carpus, lay all night untouched in the 
hysena's cage at Oxford. 

8. Similar bone from Kirkdale, equally untouched. 

llie above specimens go far to explain the fact of the abundance 
(in excess) at Kirkdale of similar solid and marrowless bones, and frag- 
ments of bone ; and of the absence of the softer portions analogous to 
those which were devoured by the hytena in Oxford. 

9. Fragment of the lower jaw of a young hyaena from Pljonouth, 
exhibiting the posterior molar tooth of the first set about to be shed, 
and two of the permanent teeth rising in the jaw beneath ; from a 
drawing by Mr. Clift. 

10. Jaw of a young hysena from Kirkdale, belonging to Mr. Sal- 
mond, showing it to have but three deciduous molar teeth in the 



278 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

lower jaw, whilst the number of permanent molar teeth in this same 
jaw is four : at A. the posterior tooth of the second set is in the act 
of rising through the bone, but not yet protruded. 

11, 12, 13. Jaws of weasels from Eirkdale, belonging to Mr. 
Salmond. 

Plate XXIV. 

Copy of a drawing by Schroder, published by Mr. Bieling, of a 
remarkable mass of remains discovered in a bed of diluvial loam, that 
covers the gypsum quarries in new red sand-stone at Thiede, about 
four miles south-west of Brunswick. The remains lay heaped on 
each other, as represented in the plate, all within. a space of 10 feet 
square. Among them were 11 tusks and 30 molar teeth of elephants 
(one 14 feet long), and various bones and teeth of elephant, rhino- 
ceros, horse, ox, and stag. 

In the drawing, the letters and figures which are not placed on 
teeth or bones imply that they existed in the loam in the place im- 
mediately below the figures respectively. 

Plate XXV. 
Fig. 1. Sectional view of the coast of Dorset, from Lyme Begis 
to the Isle of Portland, as seen from Lyme Begis; showing the 
manner in which the vaUeys are intersected at the point where they 
terminate in the present sea-shore. It is probable that a consider- 
able portion of this coast has been worn away by the sea, and that 
the small valleys or combs, which are now abruptly truncated at 
their termination, were originally continued with a gradual slope 
to the water's edge. The form of these cliffs, and of those in .fig. 2, 
as they appear when seen from a boat in passing along the coast, is 
represented in the sections by Mr. De la Beche, at Plate VIII. of the 
Geological Transactions, second Series, vol. i. part i. 



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fi.ie. 




r 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 279 

Fig. 2, Sectional view of the coast of Devonshire, from Sidmouth 
to Beer-head. The first comb or dry valley, on the east of Sidmouth, 
is abruptly truncated, like those represented in fig. 1 ; the others 
terminate by a gradual slope towards the sea. The line of junction of 
the green-sand with the red marl is marked by the cessation of in- 
closures and of fertile soil, exactly at the point where the green-sand 
begins. The table-lands, that form the summits of these green-sand 
hills, are for the most part barren heaths, except where they are 
covered with diluvian gravel, or by a bed of unrolled chalk flints. 
This observation applies also to the green-sand summits in fig. 1, and 
to the table-lands composed of the same stratum, which stretch in- 
land from the coast to the flat summits of the Black Down Hills, in 
which this formation attains its highest elevation, overhangmg with 
its escarpment the vale of Taunton. (See map at Plate XXVI.) 

Plate XXVI. 

Map of the valleys which intersect the coast of Dorset and 
Devon. — The north-west angle, not being mentioned in the paper, is 
not coloured. 

Plate XXVII. 

Map showing the manner in which the lickey sand-stone pebbles 
have been drifted from Warwickshire, through two low points in tjbe 
escarpment of the oolite limestone at Moreton in Marsh, and on the 
north of Banbury ; and been spread over the country along the vaUeys 
of the Evenlode, the CherweU, and the Thames, and also on the north 
of Buckingham. 



INDEX. 



A. 



Abingdon^ pebbles of porphyry in gravely 198. 
— — bones of elephants and other animals 

in gravel at, 175. 

■ qnartzose pebbles in the valley of, and 



on the hills adjacent, 252. 
Abbotsbnry, rolled tooth of elephant in Chesil 

Bank, at 247. 
Abscess, marks of, ^Uscovered on antedilavian 

wolfs bone by Mr. Clift, 74. 
Abury^ Dmidical temple built of grey wethers, 

248. 
Accidents, many most concur to the discovery of 

bones in caverns, 97* 
Actual causes, their effects on lake Huron, 216. 
■ began at the period usually as- 



HMMi 



signed, 228. 

■■ " ■ cannot have produced diluvial phe- 

nomena, 227. 
Adelsberg, cave in Carniola, containing bears* 

bones, 161. 
Adipocere, in human foot at Paviiand, 88. 
iElian mentions hyaenas' enmity to dogs, 23. 
Africa^ proofs of diluvial action in, 220. 
Agates, obtained from diluvium, in Hindoostan, 

ibid. 
Aikin, Mr. his account of gravel at Litchfield^ 

195. 
Album grsecum, calcareous excrement of hyaenas 

in cave at Kirkdale, 20. 
— — — — shows hyaenas to have eaten 

bones, 37. 



Allan, Mr. his account of osseous breccia at ^Hce, 

151, 152. 
Alluvium of two distinct eras, 185. 
■ term applied too vaguely, 190. 

■ ■ recent, Mr. Bald's description of it, 
^ 186. 

ancient, Mr. Bald*s description of it, 

ibid. 
Alps have been under water, 221. 
-— — effects of diluvial action in them enormous, 

212. 
Alpine limestone in Franconia, 124. 
Alternation, none of stalagmite with beds of loam 

and pebbles in the caves, 110. 
none of mud and stalagmite at Biels* 

H5hle, in the Hartz, 123. 
Althorp, chalk flints in gravel near, 197. 
America, proofs of diluvial action in, 215. 
'■■ ' was inundated at the same time with 

Europe and Asia, 218. 
North, pebbles of lead in stream works. 



177. 



■■■' ■ South, proofs of diluvial action in it, 2 1 8. 
Analogy of diluvial phenomena in all countries, 

227. 
Angular fragments, more abundant in fissures 
than in caves, 151. 
■ ■ in Mediterranean breccia. 



150. 



in caves, are of two eras. 



143. 



flints, on summits, in Devon and Dorset, 



245. 



o o 



282 



INDEX. 



Animal matter in cave of Kuhlock^ 138. 

■ remains in diluvium of Dorset^ 247. 
Animals similar in Yorkshire and Italy> 182. 
Anomalies at Kiihloch^ bow reconciled^ 140. 
Anspach> Margrave of, his account of caves^ 146. 
Antibes^ osseous breccia^ 148. 
Antrim^ valleys excavated by denudation, 207. 
Arc, Valley of, at Mount Cenis, gravel of two 

eras, 189. 
Arezzo, at upper end of Val d'Amo, 181. 
Aristotle, mentions hyaenas robbing graves, 23. 
Amheim, diluvium on bank of Rhine at, 189. 
Arno, Valley of, bones of elephants, &c. 181, 182. 
Ashdown Park, valley full of grey wethers, 248. 
Ashes, above stalagmitic crust at Gidlenreuth, 135. 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, remains of elephants 

in it, 175. 

■ contains a complete 

collection of the remains alluded to in this 

work, 116. 
Asia, proofs of diluvial action in, 220. 
— central, the place to look for human bones, 

170. 
Avalanches in the Hymalaya, bones brought down 

by them, 223. 
Axbridge, cave near it with foxes* bones, 166. 
Axe Valley, simply of diluvial origin, 241. 
Axminster, section of lias quarries near it, 242. 

B. 

Bagley Wood, pebbles on its highest ridge, 251. 
Bagnes, Valley of, effect of a lake bursting in it, 

236. 
Bald, Mr. his account of two kinds of alluvium, 

185. 
— — his account of elephants in Scotland^ 

179. 
Bamberg, district of caves, 124. 
Banca, tin in diluvium in, 220. 
Banbury, quartzose pebbles, 252. 
Banner Down, dyke of stones filling a fissure^ 69. 



Bareuth, district of caves, 124. 

Barfs, ridges of diluvium in Holdemess, 209. 

Barnard Castle, blocks of granite from Shap, 194. 

Barrow, Mr. announces third discovery at Ply- 
mouth, 68. 

Basel, parallel terraces on sides of the Rhine 
near, 217. 

Bat, bones in cave at Kbstritz, 1 68. 

Balleye, elephant's remains in a lead mine at, 
A.D. 1663, 61. 

Bauman's Hohle described, 117. 

Bavaria, bones in gravel at Eichstadt in, 26. 

Beaconsfield, pebbles from Warwickshire, on the 
hills near, 252. 

Bear, remains common to caves and gravel beds, 
146. 

— in cave at Kirkdale, 17. 35. 

bones in osseous breccia of Pisa, 150. 

— — lived and died in the caves, 103. 

Bears, remains of at least 2500, in cave of Kuh- 
loch, 139. 

Beaver, fossil, in Val d'Amo, 182. 

Bedford, gravel in vale of, 197. 

Bedfordshire) its gravel, 196. 

Beer Head, entirely composed of chalk, 244. 

Behrens, account of caves in his Hercynia Curiosa, 
104. 

Boiling, Mr. his account and collection of bones 
near Brunswick, 181. 

Berger, Mr. his discovery of bones near Bruns- 
wick, 181. 

Birmingham, pebbles in red stand-stone near, 249. 

Bigsby, Dr. his account of diluvial action near 
Lake Huron, 215. 

Birds, list of bones found at Kirkdale, 15. 

bones at Kirkdale, chiefly wing bones, 34. 

in the diluvium of England, 27. 

bones, in Paviland, and Gibraltar, 93. 155. 

Biel's Hohle, origin of name, and description of it> 
12U 

Black earth, rare in cave of Gailenreuth, 136. 

— — — — — none at Kirkdale^ 12. 



INDEX. 



283 



Black earthy abandance of it at Kuhloch, 13r> 138; 

■■ ■ at Scharzfeld, from decayed bones, 

117. 

Blackdown^ rounded quartz pebbles on its sum- 

mitsj 247. 

■ summits have chalk flints on themy 



245. 



it^ ibid. 

Blade bone in cave at Paviland> 87. 

Blocks on the Jura^ analogous to pebbles on the 
top of the rock of Gibraltar^ 1 57. 

Blorenge Mountain^ effect of torrents from it^ 
188. 

Bloxam, A. Esq. discovered hysena at Rngby^ 26. 

Blumenbach> his description of bones near Os« 
terode^ 107. 

number of elephants found in Ger- 
many, within his knowledge^ 180. 

■ his opinion of the origin of bones in 



caves, 103. 
Bochart^ his account of hyaenas mentioned in 

Scripture, and classic fvriters» 23. 
Bog report, Irish, quoted, 209. 
Bode river, near cave of Bauman's Hohle, 1 18. 
Bombay, agates and onyx stones in diluvium, 220. 
Bones, number of and broken state at Kirkdale, 

12. 

fracture of them, the effect of violence, 17. 

cover the bottom of cave at Kirkdale, 1j6. 

bard parts only have escaped fracture, ibid. 

marks of teeth on them, ibid. 

splinters and comminuted fragments, of, 

ibid. 

■— ^ cemented to a breccia, ibid. 

in different states of decay, and cause of 

ditto, 13. 

— . retain much of their gelatine, ibid. 

preserved from decay by mud and stalag- 



mite, ibid. 

— — of recent animals in chimney of the cave 



at Paviland, 93. 



Bones of modern animals mixed with antediluvian 

at Kostritz, 168. 
recent, in same cave with antediluvian. 



100. 



mixed with ancient, at Zahnloch^ 



131. 



pebbles of plastic clay formation on 101. 



general state of them in German caves, 

occur in caves but partially, 143. 

recent, in cave of Gailenreuth, 135. 

■ open cavern near Paviland, 96. 



— postdiluvian, in open fissure at Duncombe 
Park, 55. 

« 

— their position in caves of Germany, 1 10. 

— broken, but not rolled, in Mediterranean 



breccia, 150. 

— invested with stalagmite, 16. 

— in caves at Kostritz, near Leipsig, 1 67. 
not mineralised, 9. 

soft, when taken from the diluvium, 175. 

stamped and pounded by pebbles at Bau- 



man's H5hle, 119. 

from Westphalia, in the Museum at Bonn -, 



112. 
Bottle, fragment of, in breccia at Gibraltar, 156. 
Bouache, his account of depth of English Channel, 

246. 
Boulders abound in north-west of England, 199. 
- near Lake Erie and Lake Huron, 216. 
of granite in counties of Wicklow and 

Carlow, 208. 
■■ abound in South Wales, 206. 

— — ~ on surface of hills in Stirlingshire, 202. 



Bowles, Mr. his account of bones in Spain, 160. 
Box near Bath, elephant's remains, 174. 
Brackley, diluvial quartz pebbles, 1 97. 
Bransburton, ridge of gravel locally called barf^ 

209. 
Braunston, its gravel, 196. 
Breccia^ definition of, 8. 
■■ osseous, from Kirkdale, 49. 

■ in caves. 111. 

o o 2 



284 



INDEX. 



Breccia^ siliceous^ near Sidmouth^ 245. 

— — in cave of Gailenrenth^ 135. 

" of bones in cave of Baaman*8 Hohle, 120. 

— — — - postdiluvian at Gibraltar^ 156. 

— — >- at Gibraltar coeval with that of English 

and German caye8> ibid. 

' of fissures coeval with that of caves, 153. 



Bridgnorth, granite blocks on the east of it, 199. 
— — pebbles in new red sandstone, 249. 
Bridlington, elephant's remains at, 173. 

■ ■'■ ' caves of diluvium high on chalk cliffs 

at, and near, 192. 
Bridport, character of its valley, 241. 
Brington, Great, gravel pits contain chalk flints, 

197. 
Brongniart, M. his account of the action of water, 

188.211. 
Brooks, Mr. hb collection in osteology, 35. 
Brown, Mr. his account of hysena*s habits, 22. 
I says hyaenas eat one another, 28. 

'■■ his account of hyaenas dragging dead 
camels, 22. 
Bmckmann, his account of caves in the Carpa- 
thians, 100. 
Brunswick, heap of remains found near it in 

diluvium at Thiede, 181. 
Buckingham, gravel in vale. of, 197. 
Buckinghamshire, its gravel, 196. 
Buffon, his account of valleys in France, 21 1. 
Bumham, •pebbles from Warwickshire in gravel 

at, 252. 
Burringdon cave, in Mendip, with human remains, 

164. 
Burton, near Bridport, elephant's remains, 174. 

■ character of its valley, 241. 
Busbequius, his account of the habits of hyaenas, 
22. 

C. 

Cairn Gorm, topaz in gravel, 220. 

Cambridge, gravel beds of compound character. 

198. 



Camp, British, on the hill at Paviland, 90. 

Camp de Geants, mastodon at hdght of 7800 feet, 
222. 

Campsey Hills, proofs of diluvial action on> 201. 

Campden Hills, flank the Bay of Moreton, 250. 

Canali, professor, his collection of bones from 
P^ombaro, 161. 

Canal, Oxford, how it passes the oolite escarp- 
ment, 254. 

Canstadt, on the Necker, bones in gravel> 25. 
■ heap of remains found there, 180. 

bones of bear> hyaena, and elephant, in 

diluvium at« 101. 

Canterbury, elephant's remains near, 1 74. 

Cape, animals now peculiar to it inhabited York- 
shire, 44. 

Carlow county, ridges of limestone gravel in, 209. 

Carpathians, caves there described by Hayne and 
Bruckmann, 104. 

have been under water, 221. 

— — — gravel of two eras, 189. 

Catcott, Rev. Mr. his account of Hutton cave^ and 
specimens, 57* 

■ his account of effects of diluvial currents, 
225. 

Caverns preserve remains of antediluvian animals, 
42. 

of Germany, general description of them, 

109. 

eidst together with Assures at Gibraltar^ 

154. 

Caves, their probable origin, 5. 

■ not made by the hyaenas, ibid. 

■ their extent in England, 6. 

connected with fissures^ 142. 

— ^— — open before the deluge, ibid. 
— — .* contain boues but partially, 143. 
— list of most remarkable on the continent, 

104. 
Cette, osseous breccia, 148. 
Cerigo, osseous brecda, ibid. 
Cenis, Mont, gravel of two eras in contact, 189. 



INDEX. 



285 



Ceota, hreecia in a csfe opposite^ 160. 
Chalky pebbles of> near Northampton, 197. 
■ ■ once extended far beyond its present limits 
in Dorset and Devon, 245, 
■ ' flints in dilnvium of eastern counties, 194. 
■ in Derbyshire, 1 97. 



Channel, English, its greatest depth less than 

420 feet, 246. 
Charcoal in cave of Gailenrenth, 135. 

■ at Pftviland, 83. 
Chard, outlier of chalk near it, 245. 
Charmootb, character of its valley, 241. 

' elephants' remains near it, 174» 
Chamwood Forest may have supplied ^xt po r phyiy 

found in Berks and Oxon, 252. 
^— — — — supplied porphyritic pebbles, 

197, 198. 
Cherso, bones found there, 154. 
Chesil Bank, near Weymouth, its ingredients, and 

whence derived, 247. 
— ^— — — rolled tooth of elephant in it, ibid. 
Chevalier, M. his account of bones at Gibraltar, 

148. 
Chellaston, character of diluvium on gypsum, 195. 
CherweU, quartzose pebbles in its valley and ad- 
jacent plains, 252. 

valley of, its gravel, 198. 

Cheshire, granite blocks on its plains, 199. 
Chartham, elephant's remains, 174. 
Chert in limestone beds at Kirkdale, 4. 
Chimney, aperture like, in roof of the cave at Pa- 

viland, 92. 
Chronology, inferences from cave at Kirkdale, 48. 
— — — cause of error in J. Hunter's idea of 

the age of bones in the German caves, 147. 
Chudleigh, caves and fissures in the limestone 

there, 69. 
Clackmannan, coal-field described by Mr JBald^ 1 85. 
Clay prevails in diluvium of east coat of En^and, 

192. 
Clwydd, vale of, lead mine worked in gravel there, 

177. 



Clwyddf vale of, elqihant'a teeUi inditto^ with 
the lead, 174. 

Cliff on each side the gorge of the Bode river, 118. 

Cliffs produced by diluvial denudation, 95. 

perish rapidly on east coast of England, 1 90. 

Clift, Mr. his account and drawings of Hymonth 
bones, 75, 

his assistance in ascertaining bones, 35. 
■■■ observed marks of teeth on bones from 
Plymouth, 73. 

Clifton Hall, elephant's tusk found there, 179* 

Climate, probably warmer before the deluge, 44. 
' state of antediluvian discussed, 45. 

■ change (if any) took place at the do- 

luge, 47. 

Cock, bones of domestic, in cave at Kostnitz> 168. 

Compton-Bishop, in Mendip, cave with foxes* 
bones, 166. 

Concud, bones in caves at, 160. 

Concurrence of accidents necessary to the dis* 
covery of bones, 97. 

Continent, antediluvian same as the present, 162. 

its gravel and animals same as in Eng- 
land, 99. 

Conybeare, Rev* W. D. his extract from Cat- 
cott, 57. 

■ ' his account of gravel in central parts 
of England, 195. 

Rev. J. J. his discoveries in Belgic 



villages near Bath, 91. 

Copley medal awarded tor the author's account 
of Kirkdale, in Philosophical Transactions, 1. 

Coral rag constitutes the rock at Kirkdale, 4. 

Cornwall, stream works with pebbles of tin ore, 
177. 

Corsica, osseous breccia, 148. 

Copper ore in diluvial gravel in India, 220. 

Costorphine hill, its drifted boulders and de- 
nudations, 204. 

Cotswold hills, valleys of denudation on them, 256. 

Cottle, Joseph, Esq. his collections from Ply- 
mouth, 72. 



286 



INDEX. 



Crawley rocks (nearSwansea)> cave with bones^ 80« 
Crete> labyrinth of, a series of natural caves, 5. 
Criffle mountain, pebbles from it found in Cum* 

berland, 199. 
Crocodiles, fossil, indicate a warm climate, 45. 
Croke, Sir Alexander, observed boulders in Nova 

Scotia, 217. 
Cronebane hill, boulders of granite on it, 208. 
Cross Fell, dividing Shap from Darlington, 194. 
Cul de sac, termination of cave of Kiihloch, in a, 

140. 
Cumberland, pebbles drifted to Darlington from, 

194. 
Cumnor hill, quartzose pebbles on it, 248. 
Current, diluvian, came from the north in North 

America, 215. 

' diluvial, came from the north, 193. 

■ in Scotland, its main direction 

from the north-west, 205. 
—————— from north-east to Shipston-on- 



Stour and Oxford, 250. 

diluvian, proof of its coming from the 



north, 198, 199. 

its course in north of Oxon, 25 1 . 

proof of it in Stirlingshire, 203. 



157. 



evidence of it on top of rock of Gibraltar, 



Curtois, Rev. Mr. his account of tusk of elephant 
at Tarifa, 159. 

Curved bones, polished on one side only, 31. 

Cuvier, his old list of animals in Gibraltar brec- 
cia, 149. 



— >— his former and present opinions of the 

age of the breccia at Gibraltar, 149. 

— — his recent opinion on the Gibraltar brec- 



cia, 229. 

his opinion of the age of the bones found 



in caverns and diluvium, 230. 

— — his opinion of the author's account of 



Kirkdale,231. 

■ his conviction of the fact of a recent 



Cuvier, his account of deltas and actual causes, 
190. 

" of bones in caves and fis- 

sures, 161. 



D. 



Dales falling into vale of Pickering, 3. 
Dalmatia, its osseous breccia in fissures, 1 48. 
— ^— — bones found there, 154. 
Dammerde of Germany, is diluvial loam, 191. 
DarlingtoU} diluvium near it, 192. 

■ ■ granite block in the street, 194. 
' pebbles and blocks from Cumberland 

in gravel near it, 194. 
Davy, Sir Humphrey, visits Kirkdalc,. 52. 
Dawson, R. Esq. his communication on Halkin 

lead mines, 179. 
Days of Mosaic creation, reference to discussion 

thereon, 2. 
Debacle of Saussure, efiect of diluvial waters, 

212. 
Decay, difierent stages of, in teeth and bones, 30. 
— — of teeth and bones proportionate to ex- 
posure, 41. 
Deer, three species at Kirkdale, 18. 
De la Beche, Mr. notices correspondence in the 

coasts of Dorset and Normandy, 246. 
^ his tusk of elephant from Char- 

mouth, 174. 
Deltas at mouth of Rhine, Po, and Nile, 190. 
De Luc, Mr. his account of caves in the Hartz, 

100. 

■ his opinion of age of Gibraltar breccia, 

152. 
Deluge, proofs that it has excavated valleys, 237. 
■ period of, not exceeding 6000 years 

ago, 51. 
— — summary of its proofs, by Mr. Greenougb, 



224. 



deluge, 225. 



flfravel and loam referable to it, 185. 



INDEX. 



287 



Deluge^ has modified all valleys^ 258. 

proof that it was of short diuration« 256. 

■ ■ transient, simultaneous, and not remote. 



146. 



evidence of, at Gibraltar, 148. 



Den of hyaenas at Kirkdale, 19. 

Denmark, Prince of, his account of hysena at 

Paris, 28. 
Denudation, diluvial, producing cliffs, 95. 
— — — proofs of it in Devon, Dorset, and 

midland counties, 235. 
— valleys of, on chalk of Dorset, Wilts, 



Diluvial action, evidence of it in all the world, 171. 
' proved by deposits of loam and 

gravel, 185. 

proofs of it on the continent, 211. 

» proofs of it in America, 215. 

■ evidence of it in fissures, 150, 151. 

— — • general proof of it, 207. 
— ^— waters introduced mud and pebbles, 121. 

> their action in cave of Gailen- 



reuth, 136. 

— detritus introduced once only, 121. 



and Berks, 248. 

' in Devon and Dorset, 1 99. 

— — proof of in Germany, 213. 
— — ^— proofs of near Edinburgh, 203. 

valley of, at the gorge of Rubeland, 

118. 

' near Oxford, subsequent to the in- 

troduction of the quartzose pebbles from War- 
wickshire, 254. 

not the only cause of valleys, 258. 

valley of the Weissent an example 



Diluvium, definition of, 2. 

■ occurs on hills as well as in valleys, 191. 
' character of it in Norfolk, Suffolk, Lin- 
colnshire, and Yorkshire, 194. 
■ universal in caves, 143. 

in caves near Kostritz, 167. 

>^ contains elephants, 8tc. at Lawford, 1 76. 

noticed in the Alps, 221. 

■ varies in quality in different places, 70. 
cliffs of, in Norfolk, Suffolk, and 



of it, 133. 



Essex^ 192. 

composed of loam, sand, or pebbles. 



144. 



posterior to the period when extinct 

species of animals inhabited the caves, 238. 

' proofs of, on coast of Devon, 244, 



245. 



139. 



■ , in the Campsey hills, 201 . 
— valley of, at the gorge of Rabenstein, 

valleys of, round Muggendorf, 125. 

— — — proofs of, in Devon and Dorset, 235. 

Derbyshire gravel, its character, 195. 
, bones in lead mines, 62. 

Derdham Down, bones in a cave there, 60. 

Devon coast intersected by valleys of denudation, 
239. 

Devonshire, Duke of, his block of iridescent fel- 
spar from the Neva, near Petersburg, 193. 

Diamonds in diluvial gravel, 220. 

Difference of breccia in caves and fissures, 151. 



- contains bones near the Hartz, 107. 

' exists on summit of the rock of Gibral- 
tar, 156. 

differing from alluvium in Italy, 211. 

— — — term applied to " old alluvial covers** 



of Mr. Bald, 187. 

Dillwyn, L. W. Esq. visits cave of Paviland, 82. 

— — — his account of two cavities with 
human bones, 166. 

Dog, enmity with hyaena, 23. 

Dorchester, Oxon, pebbles from Warwickshire at 
and near it, 252. 

' elephants* remains, 1 74, 

Dorset, elephants' remsdns near, ibid. 

Dorset coast intersected by valleys of denuda- 
tion, 239. 

Dover Straits shallow, and probably of diluvial 
origin, 44. 



288 



INDEX. 



Dover cout eorrasponds with that west of Calais^ 

246. 
Dragons, fiones of bears> called dragons* bones^ 

104. 
Drawings by Mr. CHft, Miss Morland, and Miss 

Danoombe> 15. 
Dream cave> near Wiilcsworth^ discovered in a 

lead mine, A. D. 1822, 6U 
Dressings, or filttvial farrows, near Edinburgh, 

203. 
Dropmore, pebbles from Warwickshire in gravel 

at, 252. 
Dry valleys on the chalk of England and France, 

257. 

Diidley» granite blocks on the west of it, 199. 

Duncombe Park, open fissure with bones, 54. 

— — — Charles, Esq. and Lady Charlotte, pre- 
sented specimens to Oxford Museum, 14. 

■ his cave at Kirby Moor- 



side, 53. 
Dunstable, pebbles of porphyry, 197. 
Durham county, character of its diluvium, 194. 
Dust, black ammal, in cave of KUhloch, 138. 
Dyke of mud and stones filling fissures at Chud- 

leigh, 69. 
Dyserth, lead mine in gravel near it, 177. 




E. 



Ecclesiasticus, hysenas* enmity to dogs alluded 

to in, 23. 
Edinburgh, proof of diluvial action near it. 203. 
Museum, elephant*s tusks preserved 

there, 179. 
Eichstadt, bones in gravel, 26. 
Elephant, fossil, or mammoth, its history, 172. 
^— ^— — found with flesh entire in ice, 183. 

■ preserved in ice, 45. 
— — — — fossil, characteristic of diluvium, 171. 
— — — «— common to caves and gravel beds, 146. 
-<-^-~— • inhabited England, 42. 



lephant, fossil, its Client in England and else- 
where, 172. 
—— — found in cave of Schneideiloch and 



Zahnloch, 106. 

fossil, on plain of Mexico, 222. 

— — ^ remains of, in lead mine, explained. 



177. 



at Tarifa, near Gibraltar, 159. 



Elephants, diiefly young ones, at Kirkdale, 18. 
— — — bones long ago noticed in Britun, 172. 
■ I ■ , supposed to be bones of giants, 

173. 

■ — ' have been imported 
by the Romans, ibid. 

' extent of their bones in Britain, 174. 

' theirremsdns prove thegpravel of Europe 



and America to be of the same era, 218. 

— — were eaten by hysenas, 37. 

do they occur fossil in central and 



southern Asia and in Africa, and if so, are they 
of extinct species, 170. 

number found in Germany, 1 80. 

lived near where their bones are found. 



184. 



found in diluvium of Scotland, 179. 



EUk, abundant under Irish peat bogs, 180. 

, fossil, found also in diluvium at Walton, ibid. 

Elster River flows in a valley of denudation, 213. 
' , valley of the, flanked by caves near Leipsig, 
167. 

England, its antediluvian inhabitants, 96. 

English Channel, in part a valley of denudation, 
246. 

Engulfment of many rivers near Kirkdale, 6. 

Ensbam Heath, quartz crystals in its gravel, 25 1 . 

Entrance of caves once difierent from their pre- 
sent mouths, 125. 

Erie Lake, dilnvian gravel near it, 216. 

Esbach River, bones in caves on both sides, 103. 

Esper, his description of Gailenreuth, 99. 

— ^— his view of the cave of Crailenrenth, 1 33. 
his plate of broken bear's bone reunited, 75, 



INDEX. 



289 



Essex, elephants on the coast of> 173. 

Etienne, St., valley of, was a postdiluvian lake, 
216. 

Evenlode valley^ state of its gravel, 198. 

qnartzose pebbles in its valley, as well 

as on the adjacent plains, 251. 

Excavation evident on the coast of Dorset and 
Devon, 244. 

Excavations, artificial, in undervaultings at Scharz- 
feld, 116. 

Excrement of hyaenas in cave at Kirkdale, 20. 

Exostosis, examples of it in fossil bones, 74. 

Extent of bear*s bones over Germany, &c. 105. 

caves and fissures in England and the 

continent, 161. 

Extinct species of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopo- 
tamus, and hyaena, 41 . 



F. 



Farey, Mr. his account of gravel in Derbyshire, 

195. 
Finland, granite blocks drifted into Russia, 193. 
Fissure communicating with cave at Wirksworth, 

64. 
— — sides scratched by falling in of <tiluvium, 

ibid. 

■ in Duncombe Park illustrates the origin 

of the bones at Plymouth, 78. 
^— — - descent by, to cave of Scharzfeld, 113. 
——— open, with recent bones, in Duncombe 



Park, 54. 
— — — near the mouth of the cave of Gailen- 

reuth, 133. 
Fissures intersect the cave of Kirkdale, 8. 
— -*— abound in Derbyshire, 66. 

at Plymouth connected with caverns, 68. 

— —— — perpendicular, with bones, at north side 

of Gibraltar, 154. 
■ at Gibraltar, containing bones, ibid. 

■ open before the deluge, now full, 142. 
coeval with caves, 142. 



Flamborough Head, cover of diluvium on chalk 

cliffs, 192. 
Flints, beds of, on the ridges and summits of East 

Devon, 245. 
Floor, state of, in the caves of Germany, 1 10. 
Fontainebleau, proofs of diluvial action near, 211. 
Forster*s Hohle, its position and description, 126, 

et seq. 
— — *— - beauty of its roof and stalagmite, 

127. 

Fortis, his account of bony breccia in Dalmatia 
and islands, 148. 154. 

Fouvent, cave containing bones, 25. 

Fox in cave at Kirkdale, 1 8. 

's bones in cave near Axbridge, 166. 

Holes, cave near Wirksworth, containing 

ochreous loam, 65, 

France, proofs of diluvial action in, 21 1. 
■ caves containing bones, 25. 

Franconia, bones found there, 24. 

-^— district of caves, 124. 

caves described by Esper and Rosen- 

muUer, 104. 

Frischmann, Mr. found elephants in Schneider- 
loch, 106. 

Frog in cave at Kostritz, 167. 

Fry, Mr. discovers caves with foxes bones near 
Axbridge, 166. 

G. 

Gailenreuth described, 133. 

■ reference to descriptions of, 99. 

Gell, Philip, Esq. his discovery of an entire rhi- 
noceros and other bones in a lead mine in 
Derbyshire, 61. 

General remarks on German caves, 142. 

Geological Society, their collection of Kirkdale 
bones, and general collection of organic remains 
and rocks, 14. 

German Ocean, pebbles have crossed it to Eng- 
land, 199. 

P F 



^90 



INDEX. 



Otonany/boneft Id its caves like those in England) 

99. 
^' ■■'«>■ plains in the north of, covered with 

granite blocks^ 193. 
Gibson, Sir Alex. Maitland, his tusk of elephant 

from Scotland, 179. 
' ■■■ " John, Esq. of Stratford, his collection ^ 

first brought specimens to London, presented 

ditto to public collections, 14. 
Gibraltar, osseous breccia in fissures and caves, 

148. 
bones in same state as at Gailenreuth, 



153. 



rock 1439 feet above the sea, ibid. 



Glass bottle in breccia at, 156. 

Glen Roy, parallel roads or terraces near it, the 

only case in Britain, 217. 
Gnawing,' marks of, on bones at Kirkdale, 16. 

'• by a living hyaena, similiar to 

those on bones at Kirkdale, 38, and Plate 

XXIII. 
— ^ marks of teeth on bones at Snndwick, 



106. 
Gbkts'Hole, cave at Paviland, 82. 
Gogmagog Hills, chalk capped with gravel, 1 98. 
Gold in gravel of South America, 218. 

obtained from stream works in Englandt 
Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, 210. 
sand in Africa of diluvial origin, 220. 

.- its general dispersion, 220. 

Goldfiiss, his account of bones from Westphalia, 

113. 

caves near Muggendorf, 

100. 
Goose bone found at Lawford in diluvium, 27. 

Gorge of the Bode River at Baumans Hohle, 

118. 
. diluvian, at Peckaw, containing caves, 



161. 



of the Amo, at Incisa, near Florence, 182. 
at New Malton, 43. 



Graminivora more liable than camironi to fall into 

fissures, 56. 
■ ' chiefly in fissures, and why, 152. 

Granite blocks in Russia and north of Germany, 

193. 
Gravel considerable in East Devon and Dorset, 

247. 
— pebbles and blocks can be traced to their 

source, 191. 

diluvial, its compound character, ibid. 

in midland counties described, 195, et 



seq. 



256. 



miscellaneous, at Shipston-on-Stour, 250. 
partly angular, partly round, at London, 

its position proves a deluge, 225. 

its compound character proves a deluge. 



227. 



in midland coun- 



ties, 196. 

diluvian, near Lake Huron, 215. 

■ partly angular, partly round, at Oxford, 



255. 



208. 



Gorges not referable to actual causes, 214. 



of limestone in Wicklolsr and Wexford, 

diluvian, near Edinburgh, 203. 

— — of two eras in Alpine regions, 189. 

Greenough, Mr. his summary of proofs of a deluge, 

224. 
first principles of geology, 

188. 
Grenville, Lord, finds quartzose pebbles at 

Dropmore, 252. 
Grew mentions elephants in Northamptonshire, 

174. 
Grey wethers on the downs of Wilts and Berks, 

248. 
Grimes, Mr. his tusk of elephant firom ^Lawford, 

177. 
Grovant mine near Halkin, 178. 
Guelderland, hills of diluvium crossing it, 189. 
Gypsum, containing caves at Kostritz, 167. 



INDEX. 



291 



H. 

Uakewilli H. Esq. send« head of rhinoceros to 
Oxford, 1 76. 

Haldon-hill^ S. W. of Exeter> probably once 
covered with chalk, 245. 

Halkin, valleys of denudation in limestone hills 

at, 178. 
' elephants* remains in lead mine at) 174. 

Hall, Sir James, thinks the granite blocks in Tees- 
dale came from Cumberland, 194. 

--———— his proofs of diluvial action near 
Edinburgh, 203. 

Hamster rat in cave at Kostritz, 167* 

Hare-jaw in cave at Kirkdale, 19. 

Harmony of caves in Germany and England, 1 08. 

of loam, pebbles, and bones, contained 

in caves, 145. 

— — Gailenreuth with other caves, 136. 



Harrison, Mr. first notices the bones at Kirkdale, 

14. 
Hartz Forest, bones of hyaena found there, 24. 

— caves described by Leibnitz and De Luc, 
104. 

— bones in diluvium near, at Osterode and 
Dorst, 26. 

Hawks supply birds* bones in a recent breccia at 

Gibraltar, 155. 
Heukelum, bones of elephant washed up by 

bursting of a dyke, 190, 191. 
Hearne, his description of bear's food, 33. 
Heaps of bones, why none outside the cave at 

Kirkdale, 39. 
Henley-hill, quartzose pebbles, 248. 
Henley, pebbles from Warwickshire on the hills 

near, 255. 
Hertfordshire, its gravel, 196. 
Herzburg, bones in diluvium near, 107. 
Hieronymus mentions hyaenas robbing graves, 23. 
Hills of east coast of England capped by dilnvium, 

192. 
their form proves a deluge, 226. 



Hinckley, its gravel, 196. 

Hippopotamus found in Lancashire, 176. 

teeth of, at Kirkdale, 118. 

Hippopotamus inhabited England, 42. 

Hoare, Sir Richard, finds rods and rings of ivory 
in barrows, 91. 

Hog, remains in Hutton cave on Mendip, 59. 

Hohen Mirschfeld, hill in the district of caves, 
in Franconia, 130. 

Holdemess coast composed of low cliff of dilu- 
vium, 192. 
■ elephants* remains in, 173. 

Holenkalk, cavernous limestone at Muggendorf, 
123. 

Holland shows alluvial and diluvial deposits in 
contact, 188. 

HoUman, his account of rhinoceros at Schanfeld, 
106. 

■ bones in. diluvium ,at 
Horden, 107. 

Hollows in BieFs Hdhle filled with mud and sand, 
122. 

Home, Sir E. his description of bones from Ores- 
ton, near Plymouth, 67. 

Honiton Vale, chalk flints on ridges inclosing it, 
245. 

Horden, at foot of the Hartz, bones in dilnvium 
near 107. 

Horns of deer, fragments of, at Kirkdale, 1 9. 
' some fallen off by necrosis, 32. 

none of oxen found at Kirkdale, and why. 



33. 



rhinoceros never found fossil, ex- 



cept in ice, and why, ibid. 

— of sheep used for manure, ibid. 



Horse, remains in cave at Kirkdale, 18. 
Houghton-on-the-hiU, its gravel, 196. 
Hue-huetoca, in Mexico, elephants* remains, 

there, 222. 
Human bones near Kirby Moorside, 54. 
-^— — remmns in caves, not antediluvian, 164. 
— — — examples of them in England, ibid. 

pp2 



292 



INDEX. 



Homan remains in cave at PkTiland> 85. 87. 
— ^— bones at Kostritz more recent than those 
of rhinoceroS) 169. 
■ in a cave in Spain, 1 60. 

——««—— to be looked for in dilavinm of 



central Asia^ 170. 
Hnmber Month shows allnyiumon dilavinm^ 190. 
Humboldt^ Baron> his account of elephants at 

Mexico and Qaito> 183. 
bones found by him at high 

m 

levels, 222. 

Hunter, John, his account of bones from German 
caves, 146. 

Hutchinson, Mr. his account of diluvial action, 
225. 

Hutton cave, with ochre and bones, in the Men- 
dips, 57* 

Hurley Bottom, elephants* remains, 174. 

Huron Lake, diluvial gravel, boulders, and de- 
nudations, 215. 

Hyde Park, quartzose pebbles from Warwick- 
shire, 198.232. 

Hyenas, three species of modem, 21 • 

— live in holes and rocks^ found with 

wolves, 22. 
— — — — eat bones and putrid flesh, 21 . 
—— -*~ drag prey to their dens, 22. 
, number of their teeth, 21. 

.- habitations and habits of modem« ibid. 
— dig human bodies from their graves, 21, 



22. 



habits mentioned in scripture and classic 



writers, 23. 

■ enmity to dogs, 22, 23. 

strength of jaw and neck, 23, 24. 

eyes formed to see in the dark, 24. 



eat their own species, and parts of their 

own bodies, 28. 

carry off a living man, 23. 

■ ■- carry prey to their dens, 22. 

I - heaps of bones near their den, ibid. 
(Cape) devoured bones at Oxford, 37. 



HysBnas common to caves and gravel beds, 107* 
146. 

■ difference of fossil from recent species, 24. 
■ extent of fossil species, ibid. 
— discovered at Lawford in diluvium, 26. 

evidence of two or three hundred at Kirk- 

dalcy 17. 
— — bones fractured equally with those of 



other animals, 16. 

— teeth of all ages and conditions, 29. 

jaws, in what state found, ibid. 

— — fed on elephants, rhinoceros, &c. 36. 
inhabited England and Europe generally 



before the deluge, 40. 

•— »- fossil species extirpated by the dduge, 38. 

why the skeleton of the last surviving 



was not found at Kirkdale, 38. 
Hypotheses, several, to explain the origin of 

bones, 97. 
— *— — three may be proposed to explain the 

origin of the bones at Plymouth $ two of them 

untenable, 76, 77, 78. 
— — — — three, proposed to explain the phe- 



nomena at Kirkdale, 39, 40. 
Hymalaya mountains, bones of horse, deer, and 
bear, height of 1 6,000 feet, 222. 



I. 



Icebergs containing mammoth bones, 46. 
Identity of time and manner of introducing dilu- 
vium to cave, 145. 
Ilford, elephants found there, 175. 
lUyria, bones in caves and issures, 148. 
Imrie, Colonel, describes birds* bones at Gibraltar, 

93. 
his account of breccia of Gibraltar, 



153. 



his account of the Canqpsey hilla. 



201. 



Indsa, gorge of, in the Val d'Amo, 181. 



INDEX. 



298 



Inflammation^ oBsific marks of^ in iTory at Pkvi- 

land, 86. 
Inoscnlation* of valleys proves dilnvian action^ 

226. 
Inundation, has covered the highest monntains, 

223. 

proofs of one near Edinburgh, 204. 

■ one only proved by state of the caves. 



145. 



•has covered the highest monntains»22 1 • 



Ireland, elephants* remains there, 180. 
— — - proofs of diluvial action in, 207. 

elephants* remains, 174. 

Isaiah mentions hyaenas, 23. 

Ischuber, in Croatia, breccia containing bones, 

161. 
Isle of Dogs, elephants* remains, 1 74. 
Italy, caves containing bones, 161. 

bones in Val d'Amo, 26. 

Ivory fossil in Scotland, fit for the turner's use, 

179. 

fit for the turner, at Bridlington, ib. 

rods and rings with human skeleton, 88. 
fragments rudely cut in cave of Paviland, 89. 
beads and bodkins in sepulchral barrows, 91 . 



J. 

Jaw bones broken equally with the rest at Kirk- 
dale, 16. 

Jena, valleys of denudation near it, 213. 

Jeremiah mentions hyaenas, 23. 

Johnson, his account of habits of hyaenas, 21, 22. 

Jones, his account of diluvial action, 225. 

Jura, blocks of granite from Mont Blanc on it, 
212. 

— limestone in Franconia, 124. 

K. 

Kennet, grey wethers in a valley near it, 248. 
Kensington Gravel Pits, pebbles firom Warwick- 
shire, 252. 



Kent's Hole, a cavern near Torbay, 69. 

Kew, elephants' remiuns at, 174. 

Kidd, Dr. his account of Oxford gravel, 266. 

. the action of rivers, 188. 

— gravel near Oxford, 1 75. 

Kildare, ridges of limestone gravel, 209. 

Kilmaurs, elephant's tusk found there, 179. 

King's-lines, Gibraltar, concretion containing peb- 
bles, 156. 

Kingsland, elephants in diluvium, 175. 

Kirby Moorside, cave discovered in 1822, 52. 

Kirkdale, cave discovered in 1821, 1. 
' situation, 3. 
■ entrance of cave, 6. 

— — form and dimensions of cave, 7. 

floor of cave covered with mud, 17. 

— — cave was a den of hyaenas, 19. 

Kirkham, position on the gorge of Malton, 4. 

Klanstein Cave, the same as Rabenstein, 129. 

Kliiterhohle, caves with bones, 112. 

Knight, Rev. H. his conjectures on the fossil ivory 
rings, 91. 

Kostritz, bones discovered in caves ther^ 25. 

Kotzebue, his account of icebergs, with mammoth 
bones, 46. 

his account of elephants near Behring's 

Straits, 183. 

Kremsminster Abbey, bones of bear in diluvium, 
101. 

Kiihloch, description of cave, 137* 

Kylos, high ridge in the Hymalaya, containing 
bones, 222. 



L. 



Labrador felspar, in England and Russia, 193. 
Lac lunse, in cave of Fox Holes near Wirksworth, 

65, 
Lake, antediluvian, near Kirkdale, 19. 

in the vale of Pickering, 43. 

would exist in the Val d'Amo, without the 

gorge at Incisa,]82. 



394 



INDEX, 



Lake6> their tendenqr to fill up, rather than Imrst, 
213. 

Lancashire, granite bl^ks on its plains, 199. 

Land-floods, did not introduce the mnd to -eaves, 
50. 

Land-shells in fissures, and not in caves, 151. 
' in breccia of Gibraltar, 149. 154. 

Lark bones at Kirkdale, 1 5 — 34. 

Lawford, near Rugby, elephants and other re- 
mains there in diluvium, 176. 

, hyeena discovered there^ 



26. 



other animals in diluvium there, 27. 



Lead-mine, containing an entire rhinoceros, 62. 
■ in North Wales, containing elephants* 

teeth, stags* horns, &c. 1 11 , 

Ledges in caves covered 't^ith diluvial sediment, 
123. 

Lee*s Natural History of Lancashire, head of hip- 
popotamus engraved in it, 176. 

Leibnitz, his accoiint of caves in the Harts, 100. 

Leicestershire, its gravel, 195, 196. 

Lena, islands at its inouth full of bones, 46. 183. 

Lewisham, elephants' remains, 174. 

Leyden, bones of elephant washed up by bursting 
of a dyke, 1 90. 

Licome, or fossil unicorn, bones used for medicine, 
104. 

Lickey Hill, near Birmingham, may have supplied 
quartzose pebbles, 249. 

Limestone, cavernous, round Mnggendorf, 124. 

Lincoln, character of diluvium, 193. 

Lincolnshire coast, formed of diluvium, 192. 

, , the Wash, shows alluvium on di- 
luvium, 190. 

Linnaeus, why he overlooked the evidences of a 

deluge, 225. 
Litchfield gravel its character, 195. 

... > pebbles in new red sandstone, 241. 

List of animals found at Kirkdale, 1 5. 
XJandebie, in Caermarthen. Cave with human 

bones, 166« 



Ll8nrw8t> graevel and dihivial scratdiea aear it, 

206, 
Loam in caves not produced by deeonpoaitioa of 

the roof, 144. 
' '•'■•" with;^ the cav^, resembles the dilimBm 

without, 145. 
' ■ *' noticed by De Luc^ Leibnit^ Esper, and 



Rosenmoller^ 1D9. - • 

in caves at Kostritz, 167. 

- — in cave at Kirby Mooraide, 53. 

in cave of 8cbarEfeld,^lbirademiiHii^i 



115. 



■^ . » . - 



in cave of Zahnloch, 131. 

in cave of Oaileureuth, 136. 

in caves of Germany, 102. 

in fissures and caverns at Plymouth^ 68. 

— in osseous breccia of CHbraltar, 160. 

red in Mediterranean breccia^ ibid. 

diluvial at Gibraltar, 156. 

varies itf quality vdth the a^iicent b9U, 

191. 
Loders, Dorset, elephants^ remains at, 174. 
Lombardy, torrents in the plain of, 188.' 
London, remaitis of ^elbphant under -Hi^ streets, 

174. 
Long Compton, pebbles of quartzose sandstone, 

250. 
Lucan mentions hyienas* bones as used in enchant- 
ments, 23. 
Lucas, J. Esq. his femur of rhinoceros, 81. 
Lutterworth, its gravel, 196. 
Lyme Regis, eleph&nts* remains, 1 74. 
Lyme, valleys intersect the coast near, 239* 
Lyme, valley simply of diluvial origin, 241. 



M. 



Macclesfield, granite blocks on the west of it, 

199. 
MfddiSiihead, pebbles from Warwickshire on the 

hills round, 198. 252. 



INDEX. 



296 



Maghery, in Ireland, elephants' remains there, 

180. 
Malacca^ tin in dilavinnij 220. 
Malbay River, in valley of St. Etienne, 216. 
Malina, gravel produced by its torrents, 188. 
Malton Gorge, the only drainage to the Vale of 

Pickering, 4. 43. 
Mammoth, or fossil elephant, its history, 172. 
Manganese, incnisting sand in cave at Kirkdale, 

10. 
— — — ■ in dilavinm at Plymouth and else- 
where, 74. 
Manor Vale, cave near Kir by Moorside^ 52. 
Market Harboroogh, its gravel, 196. 
Maryborough, ridges of limestone gravel, 209. 
Mastodon, bones found at 7800 feet high, 222. 
Meade, Dr. his account of boulders in New York, 

218. 
Meath, ridges of limestone gravel, 209. 
Meduna, gravel produced by its torrents, 188. 
Mexico, stream tin in its gravel, 118. 

plains of, afford remains of elephants, 222. 

Mice> bones of, at Kirkdale, 19. 

Michael's, St. cave at Gibraltar, 154. 

Miller, Mr. discovers human remains at Wokey 

Hole, 165. 

his discovery of bones near Clifton, 60. 

Mitchell, Mr. his account of elephants in North 

America, 183. 
Mole, in cave at Kbstritz, 167. 

in cave at Paviland, 93. 

Molineux, Dr. his account of elephants in Ireland, 

180. 
Molpa Grotto. Containing bones of mminantia, 

161. 
Monkeys, eat their own tails, 29. 
Mont Blanc, under water when blocks were drifted 

from it to the Jura, 221. 
.— — — Granite transported from it to the 

Jura, 212. 
Moreton,Mr. mentions elephants inNorthampton- 

shire^ 174* 



Moreton in the Marsh> pebbles accumulated in its 

bay, 250. 
Morland, Miss, her drawings forCuvier» 177. 

• and for the author, 15. 

Mouth of caves, the present not the antediluvian 

ones, 142. 
'Mountains, the highest, have been nnder water, 

223. 
Mud, or loam, diluvian, in Kirkdale cave, 49. 
covers the floor at Kirkdale, 10. 
introduced to caves at the deluge, 143. 
no alternating beds of it, 50. 
in Bauman*s Hohle, 1 1 9. 
in Forster*s Hohle, 128. 
found by Mr. Gell, in caves and fissures of 
Derbyshire, 65. 
— with sand in Biel's Hohle, 123. 

or loam, in caves of Germany, 108, 109, 110. 
iu veins or dykes, near Petersburg, 112. 
in nearly all the cavities at Plymouth, 70. 
postdiluvian, in Wokey Hole, &c. 50. 



Muggendorf, district of, caves in limestone, 124. 
Mumbles, near Swansea, fissure with hvman 

bones, 166. 
Mur River, in Styria, passing the gorge of Pekaw, 

161. 
Muston, drainage in Vale of Pickering, 43. 

N. 

Nerita shells, found in a barrow near Warminster, 

91. 
found with hnman skeleton at Pavi- 

land> 88. 
Newark, gravel near, 194. 
Newcastle, much diluvium east of the town, 192. 
New Grange, catacomb in county of Meath, 165. 
Newnham in Warwickshire, elephants' bones there, 
„ 176, 

Newton, near Bath, elephants* remains, 174. 
New red sai^d-stone contains qnartzose pebbles, 

249. 



296 



New York, boolden and gravel deacribed by Dr. 

Meftde, 218. 
Nibbling, marka of, on bone* at Oreston, 73. 
Nice, its osaeons breccia in fissares, 1 48. 
—~ brecd& of two eras, 1 53. 
Nicboll, Sir Jobn, £a,veB in his park, 80. 
Nicholaston pariah, contuns Crawley Rocks, ib. 
Norfolk, character of its dilnviom, 193. 

I--I' elephuita on the coaat of, 1 73. 
Normandy coast correaponda with that of Dorset, 

246. 
Northamptonshire, elephants' remaina, 174. 
North latitndes, once inhabited by tropical genera 

of animals, 47. 
North Leach, ralleya of deondation near it, 

257. 
Northnmberland. Character of diluvinm, 193. 
North Wales, elephants' remains, 174. 
Norway pebbles, drifted to the east coaat of Eng- 

knd, 192. 
Norwich, elephants' remsins, 174. 
Nova Scotia, granite bloclts oo its highest hills of 

slate, 217. 
Noienberg, district of caves near, 124. 
Nymegen, cliff of dilnvinm on the left bank of the 

Waal, 189. 



Oasero, bones fonnd there, 154. 
Osterode, bones In dilnvinm near, 26. 107* 
Otter Valley, simply of dilnvial origin, 241. 
Outliers of chalit in Dorset and Devon, 245. 

' or detached masses of strata, prove a 
deloge, 226. 
Owl bones in cave at Kostritz, 167. 
Ox, two species at Kirkdale, 18. 
Oxford, Bishop of, 14. 

gravel, its componnd character, 198. 255. 

— ^' ■' elephants in gravel at, and near, 175. 



Pallas, his acconnt of elephants in Siberia and 
Rossia, 183. 

Palombara, cave containing bones of bear, 81. 

Parallel roads, acconnt of them in North America, 
216. 

Pargeter, Mr. his acconnt of lH«ccia at Gil^tar, 
158. 

Paris, proof of dilnvial action near, 211. 

Parry, Captun, his acconnt of animals in Mel- 
ville lalaod, 33. 

Paviland cave, with human and antediluvian bones. 



Ochre contuna bones in carities of limestone on 

Mendip, 57. 
— ^ in dilnvinm of fissures near Spa, 111. 
-.^— in cave near Wirksworth, 65. 
Oolite occnrs at Kirkdale, 4. 
.—^—pebbles, none on snmmits roundOxford, 253. 
Oppian mentioiu bynna's ennuty to dogti 23. 
Onrton, list of ani'"i'l" discovered there, 75. 
ivea and fissures, deacript'ion of, 68. 
Lverns, near Plymoath, with bones, 67. 
a prove a deluge, 227. 
da of cavea resembles tltat of Gi- 




Pebbles mark the course of diluvial waters, 253. 

' their position on snmmits shows the re- 

cent origin of valleys, 253. 

~—^ of two classes in diluvinm of east coaat 
of England, 192. 

».ii ■ - 1 drifted from Norway to east coaat of 
England, ilnd, 

— — in caves of Germany, 108. 

— ■■» I on snmmits in Devon and Dorset, 199> 

dilnvial, in the Campsey bills, 201. 

—~- drifted from the North to Shipston and 
Moreton, 25P. 

not rounded within the caves, 119. 

in cave of Zahnloch, 131. 

in'sHohlejllS. 



INDEX. 



297 



Pebbles in breccia of Nice> 152. 

iD caves at Kostritz^ 167. 

raret if any, in cave at Kirkdale, 7. 

■ none in cave of Kiihlocb, and wby> 140, 
in cave of Gailenreatb, 134. 

■ in caves in Spain> 160. 

in cave and fissure at Hatton> 58. 

—not introduced to cave by land-floods, 118. 
— - in osseous breccia of Mediterranean, &c. 
150. 

■ overlooked by most writers on the caves, 

introduced to caves at the deluge, 143. 145. 
• did not enter by present mouth of caves, 

■ in caves and fissures near Spa, 111. 
— — - their course from Warwickshire to Lon- 
don, 252. 
— -— of adjacent hills mixed with those from 



109. 



126. 



Norway, 193. 

on summit of Rock of Gibraltar, 157. 



Peckaw, in Styria, caves containing bears* bones 

at, 161. 
Pennant, his account of hysenas at the Cape> 23. 
■ ' mentions elephants' teeth in North 

Wales, 174. 
Pentland, Mr. found bones of bear in the Val 

d'Amo, 110. 

' his communication on the Val 

d*Amo, 182. 

■ his notice of bones in caves of 

Italy, 161. 
Pentuan, whales* bones in stream tin mine, 1 86. 
Periods, evidence of four in cave at Kirkdale, 48, 49. 
Phillips, Mr. his account and engraving of the 

Siberian elephant in ice, 183. 
notices correspondence of coast 

near Dover and Calais, 246. 
Pickering, Vale of, its analogies to the Val 

d'Arno, 182. 
■ geological structure and 

boundary of, 3« 



Pigeon at Kirkdale, 15, 34. 

Pinnacles in BieFs Hohle have mud and sand on 

their summits, 123. 
Pisa, osseous breccia, 148. 
Plastic clay formation, traces of it on Blackdown, 

245. 
Pliny mentions hysenas robbing graves, 23. 
Plymouth, three sets of caves there, %1 , et seq. 
— — - Earl of, his stages horns from Dyserth, 

*i78. 
Politz, caves with bones near it, 167. 
Polish, partial, on one side only of curved bones, 

at Kirkdale, 31. 

on a block of stone at Zahnloch, 131. 

■ on floor of cave at Gailenreuth, 137. 

Pontypool, torrent near it, 1 88. 
Porphyry pebbles near Dunstable, 197. 

' at Abingdon, and near Oxford, 

198. 

in Bagley Wood, 252. 

Portisham, Dorset, blocks resembling Hertford- 
shire puddingstone, 245. 
Postscript, containing the opinion of M. Cnvier, 

220. 
Powder, black, in cave of Kuhloch, 1 38. 
Prescot, J. Esq. presented rhinoceros* head from 

Siberia, 177. 
Prince's Lines, at Gibraltar, birds' bones found 

there, 154. 
Provengal, Mr. his account of osseous breccia 

at Nice, 148. 



Q. 



Quartz pebbles on hills round Charmouth, &c 

247. 
Quartzose pebbles in midland counties, &c. 249. 
— — — ^— if not from Warwickshire, 

came from some more distant point, 255. 

■ rounded before their last trans* 



port, ibid. 



QQ 



Quito, remains of mutodon fonnd there by Mnm- 
boldt, 222. 



Rabbits, bones of, at Kirkdale, 19. 
Rabenstein, position and description of cave, I29> 
Rats. See water rats. , 

Raven, bones of, in cave at Kirkdale, IS. 34. 
Ravenglass, granite drifted thence to Cheshire and 

Staffordshire, 199. 
Red chalk pebbles at Shipston, drifted from the 

north, 250. 
—— clay and pebbles in the breccia of Nice, 152. 

earth on top of Rock of Gibraltar, 157. 

■ " in fissores and caves at Oihraltar, 

ibid. 
— — oxyde of iron on boues of a woman at Pavi- 

land, 88. 
Rhinoceros' flesh preserved in ice, 45- 
inhalnted England, 42. 

. — I entire skeleton in a lead-mine, 61,62. 
■ fonnd at Plymonth, 67. 

— — ■ ■■ in cave at Scharzfeld, 106. 



118. 



- atTanla, near Gibraltar, 159. 



Rhine, dilnvinm on its bonks at Amheim, 169. 
Richardson, Dr. his acconnt of denndation in the 

north of Ireland, 207. 
Ridges of gravel on limestone plains of Ireland, 

209. 
Ridinger, his engraving of bears, 132. 
Ridlington, in Rnttandshire, chalk there, 250. 
Rings of ivory witli hnmui bonea at Paviland, 89, 
mnt of effects prodnced by them. 



^^^^ Rings 01 ivory wiin hi 

n 



Rivers, their action described by Kidd, Oreenoogh, 
and Brongniart, 1 88. 

why they prodace little effect, 236- 

why they conld not have made valleys. 



- in cave of Snndwick, ibid. 

- in caves of Germany, ibid, 
-teeth at Kirkdale, 18. 

- fonnd at I^awford, 27. 

- with hnman bones in cave of Kiistritz, 



Robin Hood's Bay, elephants' remuns there, 173. 
Rock basins in month of the cave at Paviland, 83. 

on summit of Rock of (Mbraltar, 157- 

RodboroDgh, near Strond, elephants' remains, 174. 

Rods of ivory with human bones, 68. 

Roof and sides of natural caves have no bones 

adhering to them, 1 11 . ] 16. 134. 
Rosenmnller, his description of Gulenrenth, 99. 
his opinion of the origin of bones in 

caves, 103. 
Rosia Bay, Gibraltar, breccia found there, 1 54. 
Rnbeland village, under the month of Bauman's 

HShle, 118. 
Ruddle covering human bones at Paviland, 88. 
Rogby, bones preserved from decay by clay, 13, 

- elephants* remains near, 174. 176. 
Ruminantia, why rarely found in caves, 105. 

bones of, in a cave near Naples, 161. 

Rnssia, plains covered with blocks of I^nland 

granite, 193- 

elephants there described by Pallas, 183. 

Rutlandshire, its gravel, 19(i. 



Saale river flows in a valley of denndation, 213. 

Sack, Mr., of Bonn, fonnd bones at Sundwick, 25. 

^—■^^ his discoveries in caves of Sundwick, 
106. 

Salcomb Hill, angular chalk flinU on it, 245. 

Saleve monntain, granite blocks on it, 212. 

Salisbury Phun, elephants' remains, 174. 

Salmond, Wm. Esq.* of York, his collection ; mea- 
sures the cavej pre<ent8 specimens, 14. 

Sandford Hill, on Mendip, bonea of elephant, 64. 



INDEX. 



299 



Santa Fe de Bogota, mastodon^s bones at height 
of 7,800 feet, 222. 

Sardinia, osseoos breccia, 148. 

Saus8ure> his account of dilvial action in Switzer- 
land, 212. 

Saw, marks of, on a bone in the cave of Pavi- 
land, 87. 

Saxony, caves containing bones, 25. 

Scarbrorough, elephants* remains, 173. 

Scharzfeld cave described ; contains bones, mud, 
and pebbles, 113. 

Schlotheim, Baron, his account of bones at Kos- 
tritz, 25. 

— human bones 

at Kostritz, 167* 

his hypothesis to explain the 

occurrence of human bones with those of rhino- 
ceros at Kostritz, 169. 

' his account of denudation in 



Germany, 213. 
Scotland, elephants* remains in, 174. 179. 
Scratches on surface of rocks in Stirlingshire, 202. 
' ■' near Edinburgh, 

203. 
Sea, its present effects small and partial, 286. 
and land did not change place at the de- 
luge, 162. 
Section of gravel beds, containing pebbles of 

lead, 178. 

of lias quarries near Axminster, 242. 

Sedgefield, granite and greenstone boulders there, 

194. 
Sedgewick, Professor, his notice of bones in a 

lead mines in Derbyshire, 179. 
--—--—----------———----—----—— Cambridge 

gravel, 198. 
Sediment, why little in cave of Kiihloch, 141. 
Seilberg, near Canstadt, heap of remains found 

there, 180. 
Seine, valley of, proofs of diluvial action, 211. 
Shalk, in Cumberland, pebbles of Criffle sienite 

at, 199. 



Shap, granite drifted to Darlington from, 194. 

Sheep in cave at Kostritz, 167. 

Shells, recent marine shells in cave at Paviland, 
83 and 85. 

Sheppy, elephantb' remains found at, 174. 

Shipston on Stour, pebbles of quartzose sand- 
stone, &c., 250. 

Siberia, elephants described by Pallas, 1 83. 

Sicily, osseous breccia, 148. 

Sid valley, simply of diluvial origin, 24-0. 

Sidmouth, valleys intersect the coast, 239. 

Silt derived from destruction of cliffs on east 
coast of England, 100. 

Skeletons, none at Kirkdale found entire, and 
why, 37 . 

not entire in caves of the continent. 



100. 



rarely entire, 183. 



Skewer made from a wolfs toe at Paviland, 89. 
Skinner, Rev. Mr. his examination of Burringdon 

cave, 165. 
Skulls, none found entire at Kirkdale, and why, 

16. 101, 102. 
in what part found most perfect at Gailen- 

reuth, 134. 
found at Gibraltar, 154. 



Smell of bones like charnel-house at Oreston, 

74. 
Smith, Rev. Mr. his collection at Kirby Moorside, 

12. 
Snipe, bones of, at Kirkdale. See Plate XIII. 
Soemmering, Professor, his specimen of injury 

repaired in head of an hysena, 74. 
— — — — his fossil bear*s head nearly similar 

to recent brown bear, 105. 
Solid bones, numbers disproportionate to that of 

softer bones, 16. 

Solinus, mentions hysenas as robbing graves, 
23. 

Solway Frith, pebbles^ have crossed it to Cum- 

berland, 199. 

Southam, gravel near it, 1 96. 

qq2 



30() 



INDEX. 



Spa, caves and fissures^ near Spa, contain dilu- 
vium, 111. 

Spain, bones in a cave in Arragon, 160. 

Sparman, his account of hyaenas at the Cape, 23. 

Species, identity of, in caves and gravel, 145. 

Spencer, Earl, gravel in his Park at Althorp, 197. 

Spilsby, in Lincolnshire, the nearest red chalk to 
Shipston, 250. 

Splinters of bone in Kirkdale cave, 16. 

————— stamped by pebbles atBauman's 
Hohle, 119. 

Springs of Chcrwell and Evenlode, without the 
escarpment of the oolite, 254. 

Squirrel, bones of, in cave at Kostritz, 167. 

St. Asaph, section of shaft in gravel near, 179. 

Stafford, granite blocks on the west of it, 199 . 

Staffordshire, granite blocks on its plains, ibid. 

Stainmoor, blocks of Sbap granite there, 194. 

Stalactite, dehnitioo of, 9. 

on roof and sides of cave at Kirkdale, 

10. 

tube found in horizontal position at 

Kirkdale, 44. 

invests bones in German caves, 102. 

beautiful in Biel's Hohle, 122. 



Stalagmite in Forst«r s Hohle, 127. 

upper crust of it above tlie mud, in 

cave at Kirkdale, 1 1 . 
— -^— does not alternate with beds of mud. 



ibid. 



108. 



under crust of it below the mud, ibid, 
of different periods, at Kirkdale, 48, 49. 
upper crust of, at Kirkdale, 51 . 
single crust in all the caves of Germany, 

crust much broken on the floor at 



Scharzfeld, 1 1 4. 

■ crust still perfect in Bauman'sHohle, 1 20. 
' single crust in BieVs Hohle, 123. 

— — crust and pillar at Gailenreuth, 134. 
— — — does not alternate with mud or peb- 



Stirlingshire, proofs of diluvial action in, 201. 
Stokes, C. Esq. his communication on Halkin 

mines, 174. 
Strabo, mentions importation of ivory ornaments 

to Britain, 91. 
Strangways, Hon. William, his account of mud 

veins near Petersburg, 112. 

, his distinction of allu- 
vium and diluvium, near Petersburg, 187. 
Stream works, for procuring metals from diluvial 

gravel, 118. 

containing pebbles of lead, 177. 

' afford proofs of diluvial action, 218. 

Stockton on Tees, diluvium near it, 192. 
Stonehenge, made of grey wethers, 248. 
Stonehouse, caves in quarry near marine barracks 

at, 68, 69. 
Stow in the Wold, ridge affecting locally the 

course of the diluvial waters, 25 1 . 

■ valleys of denudation near, 

257. 
Stutgard, remains in the Royal Cabinet, 180. 
Suffolk, elephants on the coast, 173. 

character of diluvium, 1 93. 

Sumatra, diluvial tin in islands near it, 220. 
Summary of facts proving an universal deluge, 

226. 
Sumner, Rev. I. B. his opinion of the force of 

water, 237. 
Sundwick, bones found there, 25. 

— — caves, with bones, 112. 

Superga Mountain, near Turin, boulders on it, 

211. 

Surface, affords no indication of cavities below, 70. 
fissures and caves at Gibraltar, communi- 
cate with, 154. 
Swallow holes, extent of them in England, 6. 
————— in Derbyshire, ibid. 
— — — or fissures, modem cattle lost in 



bles, 144« 



them, 79, 
Sywell, near Northampton, pebbles of chalk there, 
197. 



INDEX. 



301 



T. 



Tagliamento, gravel produced by its torrents, 
188. 

Talarcocb^ section and organic remains at, 1 78- 

Talbot, T. M. Esq. caves on his property at Ni- 
cholaston> 80. 

Miss, bones from Crawley, in her col- 
lection, 81. 

Talus of post-dilavian gravel resting on diluvium, 
189. 

Tarifa, remains of elephant and rhinoceros, 159. 

Tapir fossil, in Val d'Amo, 182. 

Taro River, effect of its inundation, 188. 

Teeth, number found at Kirkdale, 17. 

■■ mixed with broken bones at Kirkdale, 1 6. 
■ number of, disproportionate to that of the 
bones, 16. 

first set of young hyaenas, 17. 

— ^— *- of old hyaenas worn to the stumps, 29. 

fragments of, in breccia, 49. 

— — - in due proportion to the bones except at 



Kirkdale, 142. 
Terraces, or parallel roads, left by the bursting of 

lakes in North America, 216. 

■ parallel on banks of Rhine, Salza, and 

Iser, 217. 
Terrain d'atterissement, is diluvial loam, 191. 
Thames Mouth, affords alluvium on diluvium, 1 90. 
Thames Valley, state of its gravel, 198. 
Theux, cave with stalagmite, and recent bones, 

near, 112. 
Thiede, near Brunswick. Heap of remains found 

there, 181. 
Throat of cave at Kiihloch, inclined upwards, 

141. 
Thuringerwald^ caves at Glucksbrun, and Lei- 

benstein, 104. 
Tiger, at Kirkdale, 1 7. 

polish in his den, 32. 
found at Plymouth, 72. 
rare at Kirkdale, 35 



Tiger, tooth of, in breccia of Antibes, 149. 
Tin, diluvial, in Malacca, Banca, and islands near 

Sumatra, 220. 
Topaz in gravel of Cairn Gorm, 220. 
Torre, gravel produced by its torrents, 188. 
Torrents, their effect at base of mountains, 1 88. 
Tortoises indicate warm climate^ 45. 
Trap, cut by valleys of denudation in Stirlingshire, 

202. 
Trebbia River, effect of its inundations, 188. 
Trent, gravel in valley of, 1 94. 
Trentham, elephants' remains near, 1 74. 
Trimmer, Mr. remains found by him at Brentford, 

176. 
Tungusia, hairy elephant found there preserved in 

ice, with its flesh entire, 45. 172. 183. 
Tusk of elephant, in cave at Paviland, 86. 
Tynemonth, much diluvium near it, 1 92. 



U. 



Undervaultings in the floor at Scharzfeld, full of 

bones, 115. 
Underwood, Mr. his account of the Paris hyena 

eating his own feet, 28. 
— observation of diluvial action 

on the rocks near Llanrwst, 206. 
Unicorn fossil, old name of fossil bears, 104. 

drawing of fossil in Lidbnitz, ibid. 

Urn, sepulchral, in cave of Zthnloch, 131 . 
UrnSy sepulchral, in cave at Gailenreuth, 1 00. 
Urus, in gravel at Butterby, Derbyshire, 63 . 



V. 



Val d'Arno, bones in diluvium of, 26. 

— — — its analogies to Vale of Pickering, 

182. 
Valleys round Muggendorf resemble gutters in 

a meadow, 1 26. 



302 



INDEX. 



Valleys^ transverse and loDgitadinal^ 189. 
•— — their form proves a delage> 226. 
— — excavated by the dilavian waters^ 237. 
why excavated since the caves were in- 
habited by animals of extinct species, 238. 
correspondence of opposite sides proves 



denudation, 240. 

of Evenlode, Cherwell, and Thames dilu- 



vial, 252. 

some referable to other causes than de- 



nudation, 258. 
Vaults, artificial, in loam and breccia at Bauman's 

Hohle, 121. 
Veins, mud veins, or dykes, in fissures, 112. 
Verviers, caves in limestone near, ibid. 
Vilhoui, rhinoceros flesh preserved in ice, 45 and 

46. 
Voltaire denied the possibility of a deludge, 225. 



W. 



Waal, cliff of Pnvium on its bank at Nymegen, 
189. 

Wales, proofs of diluvial action it it, 206. 

Wallingford, quartzose pebbles on the plain and 
hilb adjacent to, 252. 

elephants* remains, 174. 

Walton, near Harwich, remains in diluvium, 173. 

— ^— bones preserved from decay by clay, 13. 

Warburton, H. Esq. visits Plymouth and Kirkdale, 
52. 

Warwickshire, its gravel, 196. 

Water, its force competent to produce valleys, 
286. 

— — — — effects on a small scale explain de- 
nudation, 204. 

■ rats, probably eaten by hyaenas, 33. 

■ in Mediterranean breccia, 34. 
——**—— teeth abundant, 49. 
teeth and bones most abundant at 



Watson, Mr. his tooth of elephant from Balleye, 

61. 
Weasel at Kirkdale, 18. 
— ^— teeth marks on bones at Oreston, 73 and 

79. 
Weaver, Mr. his translation of Baron Schotheim, 

167. 
— — — ^^— ^ opinion as to human bones, 

170. 

■ proofs of diluvial acti9n in the 

east of Ireland, 207. 

'■ opinion as to the diuvial origin 



of gorges, 214. 
Webb, Captain, bones brought by him from Hy- 

malaya, 222. 
Weissent River, bones on one side only, 102. 
flows by cave of Gailenreuth, 

133. 
Wellow, sepulchral catacomb at, near Mendip, 1 65. 
Werner, probable origin of his theory of veins, 

112. 
Westphalia, bones found there, 25. 
— — caves with bones, 112. 
— — — • will be described by Goldfuss 

and Sack, 104. 
Wexford, proofs of diluvial action in it, 207. 
Whale, entire skeleton in alluvium of Frith of 

Forth, 186. 

bones at Pentuan, in Cornwall, ibid. 

Whidby, Mr. his discovery of bones at Oreston, 

67, 

■ collected fifteen baskets of bones at 

Oreston, 71. 

' " his account of cavities at Oreston, 



Kirkdale, 18. 



80. 
Whin dyke, near Stockton-on-Tees, covered by 

diluvium, 192. 
Whitchurch, near Dorchester, Dorset, elephants* 

remains, 174. 
Whittlebury Forest, gravel and pebbles, 197- 
Wicklow, proofs of diluvial action in it, 207. 
Wirks worth, caves near it, 61. 



INDEX. 



303 



Wirtemberg, bones in gravel of Canstadt^ 25. 
Witchu ood Forest, quartzose pebbles^ 248. 
pebl>les on its highest pointy 

253. 
Wokey Hole^ human remains, 165. 
Wolf at Kirkdale, 18. 

Wolf *8 toe^ made into a skewer at Paviland, 89. 
WoUaston, Dr. his analysis of album grsecum, 20. 
Wombwell, Mr. hysena in his collection biting off 

his own feet^ 28. 
Wool on fossil elephant of Siberia, 45. 
Wrangham> Archdeacon, his specimen of hyaenas 

jaw, 29. 
Wycombe pebbles from Warwickshire on the hills 

round, 252. 
Wytham Hill« pebbles from Warwickshire on its 

summit, 25 1 . 



Y. 



Yeovil, elephants* remains near, 174. 
Yorkshire, bones of elephant in diluvium, 173. 

— character of diluvium, 193. 

Yssel, diluvium between it and Rhine, 189. 



Z. 



Zahnloch (hole of teeth) its position and descrip- 
tion, 130. 

Zeboim, valley of, should be valley of hyaenas, 23. 

Zechstein, or magnesian limestone, near Kostritz, 
167. 

Zelline, gravel produced by its torrent, 1 88. 

Zuyderzee excavated by a dyke bursting, 236. 



THE END. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED B7 THOMAS DAVISON, WRITEFRIARJI. 



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